Thursday, August 8, 2013

Singapore - Catching Every Drop of Rain

Singapore - Catching Every Drop of Rain

The source of the map of the rivers of Singapore is the Singapore PUB
As a small island that doesn't have natural aquifers and lakes and with little land to collect rainwater, Singapore needs to maximize whatever it can harvest.
Currently, Singapore uses two separate systems to collect rainwater and used water. Rainwater is collected through a comprehensive network of drains, canals, rivers and stormwater collection ponds before it is channelled to Singapore's 17 reservoirs for storage. This makes Singapore one of the few countries in the world to harvest urban stormwater on a large scale for its water supply.
The newest reservoirs are Punggol and Serangoon Reservoirs which are our 16th and 17th reservoirs. By 2011, the water catchment area has increased from half to two-thirds of Singapore's land surface with the completion of the Marina, Punggol and Serangoon reservoirs.
With all the major estuaries already dammed to create reservoirs, PUB aims to harness water from the remaining streams and rivulets near the shoreline using technology that can treat water of varying salinity. This will boost Singapore's water catchment area to 90% by 2060,
The goal is to capture every drop of rain (Figure 1)

Pandan Reservoir
Kranji Reservoir
Jurong Lake Reservoir
MacRitchie Reservoir
Upper Peirce Reservoir
Lower Peirce Reservoir
Bedok Reservoir
Upper Seletar Reservoir
Lower Seletar Reservoir
Poyan Reservoir
Murai Reservoir
Tengeh Reservoir
Sarimbun Reservoir
Pulau Tekong Reservoir
Marina Reservoir
Serangoon Reservoir
Punggol Reservoir

Singapore River
Sungei Kallang
Rochor River
Sungei Whampoa
Geylang River
Sungei Bedok
Sungei Ketapang
Sungei Changi
Sungei Selarang
Sungei Loyang
Sungei Tampines
Sungei Api Api
Sungei Blukar
Sungei Serangoon
Sungei Punggol
Sungei Tongkang
Sungei Pinang
Sungei Seletar
Sungei Khatib Bongsu
Sungei Seletar Simpang Kiri
Sungei Sembawang
Sungei Mandai
Sungei China
Sungei Mandai Kechil
Sungei Peng Siang
Sungei Tengah
Sungei Kangkar
Sungei Buloh Besar
Sungei Jurong
Sungei Lanchar
Sungei Pandan
Sungei Ulu Pandan

Here's an emoji-laden table summarizing Singapore's efforts in rainwater harvesting and management:

Topic πŸ“šDescription πŸ“Emoji Illustration 🌟
Rainwater Harvesting 🌧️Singapore utilizes a comprehensive network of drains, canals, rivers, and stormwater collection ponds to channel rainwater into 17 reservoirs, making it one of the few countries to harvest urban stormwater on a large scale.🌧️πŸ’¦πŸ”„
Reservoir Expansion 🏞️The addition of Punggol and Serangoon Reservoirs, as well as the completion of Marina Reservoir, increased the water catchment area from half to two-thirds of Singapore's land surface by 2011.🏞️⬆️πŸ‡ΈπŸ‡¬
Future Water Catchment Goals 🎯PUB aims to boost Singapore's water catchment area to 90% by 2060 by harnessing water from remaining streams and rivulets near the shoreline using technology to treat water of varying salinity.πŸŽ―πŸ’§πŸ”œ
Reservoirs 🚰List includes Pandan, Kranji, Jurong Lake, MacRitchie, Upper Peirce, Lower Peirce, Bedok, Upper Seletar, Lower Seletar, Poyan, Murai, Tengeh, Sarimbun, Pulau Tekong, Marina, Serangoon, and Punggol Reservoirs.πŸš°πŸ“‹πŸ’§
Rivers 🏞️Extensive list of rivers including Singapore River, Sungei Kallang, Rochor River, and many others which play a role in the rainwater collection system.🏞️πŸ’¦πŸ”„

This table encapsulates Singapore's robust approach towards maximizing rainwater harvesting amidst geographical constraints, its expansion of reservoirs to increase water catchment areas, and its ambitious goals for future water catchment, along with a mention of the numerous reservoirs and rivers that contribute to this system.

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