Sunday, December 31, 2023

Happy New Year 2024! or Fiscal Year 2025

 Happy New Year 2024! Let's celebrate in a mix of English, Spanish, Persian (Iranian), French, German, Chinese, Turkish, and Dutch:

  1. Celebración de St. Venant (Spanish): Que tu 2024 fluya como el agua en un canal, guiado por las ecuaciones de St. Venant. Que cada día traiga equilibrio y continuidad.
  2. Bernoulli'nin نوروزی آرزو (Persian/Iranian): امیدوارم که انرژی شما در سال جدید مانند انرژی در معادله برنولی بلند باشد. (Omidvaram ke energy shoma dar sal-e jadid manand-e energy dar mo'adele-ye Bernoulli boland bashad.)
  3. Flux de Joie (French): Que la joie et la positivité inondent votre 2024, surmontant les obstacles.
  4. Ein Jahr des Gleichgewichts (German): Möge Ihr Jahr 2024 eine perfekte Balance von Frieden, Aufregung, Gesundheit und Wohlstand sein.
  5. Navigating Life's Currents (English): May you navigate 2024 with the skill of an engineer, using the St. Venant equations to turn challenges into opportunities.
  6. Elevated Perspectives (English): Like Bernoulli's equation, may this year elevate you to new heights.
  7. 保护与动量 (Chinese): 让 St. Venant 方程的保护和动量原则引导您,每一个小小的努力都汇聚成伟大的成就。(Ràng St. Venant fāngchéng de bǎohù hé dòngliàng yuánzé yǐndǎo nín, měi yīgè xiǎoxiǎo de nǔlì dōu huìjù chéng wěidà de chéngjiù.)
  8. Yılın Koruma ve Momentumu (Turkish): Her küçük çabanın, St. Venant denklemleri gibi, büyük bir sonuca katkıda bulunmasını umuyorum.
  9. Een Jaar van Balans (Dutch): Moge uw jaar een perfecte balans van vrede, opwinding, gezondheid en welvaart zijn, zoals de evenwichtige krachten in de Bernoulli-vergelijking.

Here's to a 2024 filled with learning, understanding, and joy across languages and cultures! 🎉🌍🔢

Friday, December 29, 2023

Keyword Categories in EPASWMM 5.2.2


Keyword CategoryExample KeywordsDescriptionEmoji
BuildupTypeWords[BUILDUP TYPES]Types of buildup in the model📈
CurveTypeWords[CURVE TYPES]Types of curves in the model📉
DividerTypeWords[DIVIDER TYPES]Types of flow dividers
DynWaveMethodWords[DYNAMIC WAVE METHODS]Methods for dynamic wave modeling🌊
EvapTypeWords[EVAPORATION TYPES]Types of evaporation💨
FileModeWords[FILE MODES]Modes of file operations📂
FileTypeWords[FILE TYPES]Types of files in the model📁
FlowUnitWords[FLOW UNITS]Units of flow measurement💧
ForceMainEqnWords[FORCE MAIN EQUATIONS]Equations for force mains🔧
GageDataWords[GAGE DATA]Data related to gages🌧️
InertDampingWords[INERTIAL DAMPING]Damping types for inertia🔽
InfilModelWords[INFILTRATION MODELS]Models for infiltration💦
LinkOffsetWords[LINK OFFSETS]Offsets for links🔗
LinkTypeWords[LINK TYPES]Types of links in the model🔗
LoadUnitsWords[LOAD UNITS]Units for loading⚖️
NodeTypeWords[NODE TYPES]Types of nodes🔀
NoneAllWords[NONE, ALL]Indicators of none or all❌✅
NormalFlowWords[NORMAL FLOW]Terms for normal flow🌊
NormalizerWords[NORMALIZERS]Normalizing factors🔍
NoYesWords[NO, YES]Binary yes/no options❌✅
OldRouteModelWords[OLD ROUTE MODELS]Legacy routing models🌊
OffOnWords[OFF, ON]Binary off/on options🔴🟢
OptionWords[OPTIONS]Various options in the model⚙️
OrificeTypeWords[ORIFICE TYPES]Types of orifices
OutfallTypeWords[OUTFALL TYPES]Types of outfalls🏞️
PatternTypeWords[PATTERN TYPES]Types of patterns🔀
PondingUnitsWords[PONDING UNITS]Units for ponding🌊
ProcessVarWords[PROCESS VARIABLES]Variables in processing🔣
PumpTypeWords[PUMP TYPES]Types of pumps🚰
QualUnitsWords[QUALITY UNITS]Units for water quality🔍
RainTypeWords[RAINFALL TYPES]Types of rainfall🌧️
RainUnitsWords[RAINFALL UNITS]Units for rainfall🌧️
ReportWords[REPORT TYPES]Types of reports📊
RelationWords[RELATIONS]Types of relational data↔️
RouteModelWords[ROUTE MODELS]Models for routing🌊
RuleKeyWords[RULE KEYS]Keywords for rules🔑
SectWords[SECTIONS]Different sections in the model📁
SnowmeltWords[SNOWMELT]Terms related to snowmelt❄️
SurchargeWords[SURCHARGE TYPES]Types of surcharges🔝
TempKeyWords[TEMPERATURE KEYS]Keys for temperature data🌡️
TransectKeyWords[TRANSECT KEYS]Keys for transects📏
TreatTypeWords[TREATMENT TYPES]Types of treatments💊
UHTypeWords[UNIT HYDROGRAPH TYPES]Types of unit hydrographs🌊
VolUnitsWords[VOLUME UNITS]Units for volume🚰
WashoffTypeWords[WASHOFF TYPES]Types of washoff🚿
WeirTypeWords[WEIR TYPES]Types of weirs🌊
XsectTypeWords[CROSS-SECTION TYPES]Types of cross-sections⬛️

Tuesday, December 26, 2023

Modeling the Inertia Term in InfoWorks ICM 🔄🔍

 Modeling the Inertia Term in InfoWorks ICM 🔄🔍

  1. Overview of Inertia Term Modeling:
    • Description: In InfoWorks ICM, users have the flexibility to choose whether or not to model the inertia term (dQ/dt) in the dynamic equation. This term plays a crucial role in the movement and behavior of water within the system. 🌊📊
    • Emoji Representation: 🔧 (Wrench to represent adjustment or setting)
  2. Excluding Inertia Term for Pressure Pipes:
    • Description: To opt-out of modeling the inertia term specifically for pressure pipes, users can select the 'Drop inertia in pressure pipes' option found in the Simulation Parameters Dialog. This setting fine-tunes the simulation to specific needs. 🚫🔧
    • Emoji Representation: 💧➖ (Water droplet with minus sign indicating exclusion)
  3. Combining with Stay Pressurised Option:
    • Description: This feature can be effectively combined with the 'Stay pressurised' simulation parameters option. The combination helps in preventing negative depths in force mains (also known as rising mains), ensuring more accurate and realistic modeling of pressurized systems. 🔄🆙
    • Emoji Representation: 🛠️✅ (Tools and check mark indicating effective combination)
  4. Benefit of Feature:
    • Description: By using these options, users can simulate a more realistic behavior of pressurized water systems, enhancing the accuracy and reliability of the model. This is especially crucial in scenarios where precise modeling of water movement and pressure is necessary. 📈💦
    • Emoji Representation: 🎯🌐 (Target and globe to represent precision and global application)

Understanding Pipe Surcharge States in InfoWorks 🌊📏

 Understanding Pipe Surcharge States in InfoWorks 🌊📏

Pipe Not Surcharged

  • Value: --
  • Description: In this state, the water level is safely below the soffit level at both ends of the pipe. It signifies that the flow conditions are within normal ranges, with no risk of overflow or pressure build-up. This is the ideal state for most piping systems, indicating efficient and smooth operation. 🚰🔽
  • Emoji Representation: 🟢 (Green indicates a normal, safe state)

Surcharge State Calculation

  • Value: <1
  • Description: This calculation is a crucial aspect of hydraulic modeling in InfoWorks. It involves measuring the ratio of water depth to the height of the pipe. This ratio helps determine at what extent the pipe is approaching or entering a surcharged state. A value less than 1 indicates that the pipe is not fully surcharged but may be approaching that condition. It's a preemptive signal for a potential surcharge. 📈📏
  • Emoji Representation: 🌡️ (Thermometer to represent measurement and analysis)

Slight Surcharge

  • Value: 1.00
  • Description: A value of 1.00 signals the onset of surcharging. In this scenario, the water level reaches or slightly surpasses the soffit at either end of the pipe, yet the flow remains within the pipe's designed capacity. It's a cautionary stage, indicating that while the pipe is handling the current flow, any additional increase could lead to problems. Monitoring and possible intervention might be necessary to prevent further escalation. 🚰➕
  • Emoji Representation: 🟡 (Yellow indicating caution and the need for attention)

Significant Surcharge

  • Value: 2.00
  • Description: When the surcharge value hits 2.00, it's a red flag indicating a critical surcharge condition. At this point, the water level significantly exceeds the soffit level, and more importantly, the flow surpasses the pipe's capacity to handle it. This can lead to increased pressure on the pipe system, potential backflows, or overflows, and requires immediate attention to mitigate risks such as flooding or structural damage. This condition demands prompt and decisive action to bring the system back to a safe operating state. 🚰💥
  • Emoji Representation: 🔴 (Red indicating a critical, urgent state)

Origin of the term Muskingum-Cunge 🌊📖

APPENDIX: Origin of the term Muskingum-Cunge 🌊📖

The term "Muskingum" springs from the Muskingum River in eastern Ohio 🏞️. It echoes a Delaware-language Native American word, thought to mean "Eye of the Elk" 👁️🦌. This term entered hydrologic vernacular thanks to G. T. McCarthy, who coined "Muskingum method" in 1938 in an unpublished manuscript, later cited by Chow in 1959 📚. McCarthy applied his innovative flood routing method to the Muskingum River, thus inspiring the name.

Jean A. Cunge 🇵🇱🇫🇷

The "Cunge" part of the name honors Jean A. Cunge, a Polish-French engineer. In 1969, Cunge published pivotal equations integral to the Muskingum-Cunge method 📈🌍. The fusion of these two names, Muskingum-Cunge, first appeared in 1975 in the Flood Studies Report by the Natural Environment Research Council in London 🇬🇧📄. Fast forward to 1990, and the Muskingum-Cunge method became a staple in U.S. hydrologic engineering, incorporated into the HEC-1 model by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 🇺🇸💧. Evolving further, in 1998, HEC-1 evolved with a graphical user interface (GUI), transforming into the HEC-HMS model 💻🌐.


Sunday, December 24, 2023

# Tips for a Good 2D Meshing Experience 📏

 Here is an expanded version with lots of emojis:

# Tips for a Good Meshing Experience 📏

Meshes are very powerful and flexible tools for modeling 2D overland flows in complex urban environments with intricate geometries. However, working with intricate geometries can be extremely frustrating and time-consuming for modelers. 😣 This guide covers best practices and helpful tips to streamline the creation and setup of detailed, high-quality 2D models in InfoWorks ICM. 💻

While this guide focuses specifically on preliminary data cleanup using ArcGIS, where relevant, comparable tools available within InfoWorks ICM are also noted. 🗺️

## Key Steps for Efficient 2D Mesh Creation

### Identifying Areas Prone to Flooding 💧

When provided with an InfoWorks ICM model that contains a 1D pipe network with flooding issues, the specific locations vulnerable to flooding are typically unknown initially. 🤷‍♂️ As an initial step, create a large, coarse 2D mesh zone with large element sizes to broadly encompass the full modeled area. 🖌️ Then assign any nodes intended to connect with the 2D surface a "2D" flood type, using default flooding coefficient values. 💦 Execute a simulation using the largest design storm, and use the maximum flood depth results to identify and refine the 2D zone boundaries to only include areas with significant flooding depths. 📏 Including large areas in the 2D mesh that remain dry provides no modeling benefit. 🚫

### Simplifying and Correcting GIS Geometries 🗺️

Additional GIS datasets are often utilized to add further detail to 2D meshes, such as buildings, walls, land use polygons, etc. However, GIS data intended primarily for mapping visualization may contain inadequacies that lead to issues when used for hydraulic modeling and geoprocessing. ⚠️ All supplemental GIS data should be carefully examined and corrected prior to incorporation into the 2D mesh creation workflow. 👀

Specific recommendations include: 📝

- Check all geometry for errors like self-intersections, null geometries and vertex order inconsistencies using ArcGIS tools. Fix any identified issues before using data to build 2D mesh. 🛠️

- Simplify geometries to balance modeling needs with computational effort. Reduce number of vertices along lines and boundaries while retaining adequate shape representation. 🖌️ 

- Identify and correct polygon gaps, overlaps and slivers which can cause substantial meshing issues. 📏

- Dissolve or eliminate unnecessary adjacent polygons to limit model complexity. 🪄

- Clip polygon layers to 2D mesh zone extents to avoid intersections with irrelevant exterior polygons.  ✂️

- Avoid multi-part polygon features where possible for compatibility and performance. 💨

By investing effort to simplify and improve supplemental GIS data quality upfront, 2D mesh creation and simulation runtime can be dramatically enhanced. ⚡️

### Innovative Modeling Approaches 💡

In some cases, thinking creatively about modeling objectives enables innovative analysis solutions. 🧠 For example, modeling distinct roughness zones based on land use polygons can require retaining extremely complex dissolved polygon geometries. Rather than directly modeling this complex shape, the polygon can be deleted entirely if the 2D zone "default" roughness reasonably reflects the paved areas previously covered by the complex polygon. 🚧 Pursuing such unconventional approaches can hugely simplify model formulations. 😊

### Elevation Data Considerations ⛰️  

Another key factor in determining appropriate 2D mesh element sizes is the nature of the underlying terrain elevation data. Typical LiDAR density and vertical RMSE statistics provide insight into reasonable minimum mesh element areas. 📏 As a general rule of thumb, the minimum element area can be set to 1-3 times the LiDAR point spacing squared. 🤓 However, additional considerations around model sensitivity and objectives should factor into selecting appropriate sizes as well. 🧐 Steep terrain may warrant smaller elements to better represent surface storage while flat areas allow coarser resolutions. 🏔️ 

## Recommendations for Efficient Future Updates 🤖

Investing time to create streamlined ArcGIS tools or model workflows pays dividends for future model updates or enhancements. 📈 Parameterizing and automating key data preprocessing steps allows efficiently regenerating 2D data for alternative scenarios or new model versions without repetitive manual effort. 🤖 

In summary, while intricate 2D mesh development requires significant upfront effort, following GIS preprocessing best practices, creatively considering alternative modeling approaches, understanding terrain data accuracy impacts, and automating workflows can help to cost-effectively build detailed InfoWorks ICM models for urban flood analysis. 👍 Let me know if you need any clarification or have additional questions!

Saturday, December 16, 2023

Kid-Friendly Weir Explanation

 Imagine you're playing with a hose in the backyard! You know how when you squeeze the hose, the water shoots out faster and higher, right? ⬆️ Well, weirs work kind of like that, but for rivers and streams!

Think of a weir as a tiny wall built across the water. It's not as high as a dam, but it's just enough to slow down the flow a bit. This makes the water behind the weir pile up, like a giant bathtub for the river!

Here's what happens:

  • Bump Bump Bump: The water hits the weir and can't just keep flowing like usual. It bumps up and over the top, making the river behind it deeper.
  • Slow Down Zone: The slowed-down water behind the weir makes a calm pool, like a giant, lazy puddle.
  • Controlling the Flow: By raising or lowering the weir, we can control how much water flows downstream. This is important for things like keeping rivers healthy, watering plants, and even generating electricity!

So next time you see a weir, remember it's like a friendly helper for the river. It slows things down, makes a cool pool, and helps everyone get their fair share of water!

Here are some extra fun facts to share:

  • Weirs can be made of different materials like concrete, stone, or even wood! 🪨
  • Sometimes, weirs have fish ladders, which are special paths that help fish swim around the weir and reach their spawning grounds.
  • Weirs can also be used to create hydroelectric power, which is a clean way to generate electricity from moving water!

Sanitary Models for Kids

 Sanitary Models for Kids 🌐

Imagine your city park is full of fun, but after a busy day, it gets a little messy, right? Leaves fall, trash piles up, and the fountains need a good scrubbing. That's where the sanitary system model comes in! It's like a secret map that shows how to keep the park clean and healthy for everyone.

Think of it like a detective for cleanliness! It follows the clues of used water, food scraps, and other "messy stuff" to see where it goes and how it can be safely removed from the park. Just like you wouldn't leave your toys scattered around, we wouldn't want our waste to stay in the park!

Here's how the sanitary system model works:

  • The Drain Detectives: They're like tiny inspectors who follow the water from sinks, toilets, and drains down special pipes. These pipes are like underground rivers carrying the "messy stuff" away from the park.
  • The Treatment Plant: This is like the park's cleaning station! It takes the "messy stuff" and uses special tools and processes to make it clean and safe for the environment. Imagine it as a magical recycling machine that turns leftovers into healthy water and soil!
  • The Clean Water Champions: Once the "messy stuff" is treated, it's sent back to rivers or streams, like giving the park a refreshing bath. This clean water can then be used for plants, animals, and even for the park's fountains!
  • The Reuse Rangers: Sometimes, the treated water is too good to waste! The model can help us use it for things like watering the park's flowers or even cleaning the streets. Imagine it as a magic trick where dirty water gets a second chance to be helpful!

The sanitary system model helps us understand how to keep the park clean and healthy, protect the environment, and even use resources wisely. It's like a superhero team that works behind the scenes to make sure everyone can enjoy the park without worrying about mess!

Here are some cool things sanitary system models can do:

  • Plan for new neighborhoods: They can help us build new houses and schools without making the park dirty.
  • Prevent pollution: They can show us how to keep the rivers and streams clean and healthy for fish and other animals.
  • Save water and energy: They can help us use treated water and recycled materials, reducing our impact on the planet.

So next time you walk through a clean and healthy park, remember the amazing sanitary system model working hard behind the scenes! It's like a secret guardian keeping the park happy and shining for everyone to enjoy.

I hope this explanation makes sanitary system models more fun and relatable for kids!

Wednesday, November 22, 2023

Emoji EPANET2.2 Reference Table


Bhave1991Analysis of Flow in Water Distribution Networks📘
Clark, R.M.1998Chlorine demand and Trihalomethane formation kinetics: a second-order model🧪
Davis, M.J., Janke, R. & Taxon, T.N.2018Mass imbalances in EPANET water-quality simulations⚖️
Dunlop, E.J.1991WADI Users Manual📘
Edwards, D.K. III, Denny, V.E. & Mills, A.F.1976The eddy diffusivity in the turbulent boundary layer near a wall🌀
George, A. & Liu, J.W.H.1981Computer Solution of Large Sparse Positive Definite Systems💻
Koechling, M.T.1998Assessment and Modeling of Chlorine Reactions with Natural Organic Matter: Impact of Source Water Quality and Reaction Conditions🧪
Liou, C.P. & Kroon, J.R.1987Modeling the propagation of waterborne substances in distribution networks💧
Liu, J. W-H.1985Modification of the minimum-degree algorithm by multiple elimination♾️
Notter, R.H. & Sleicher, C.A.1971The eddy diffusivity in the turbulent boundary layer near a wall🌀
Rossman, L.A., Boulos, P.F. & Altman, T.1993Discrete volume-element method for network water-quality models💧
Rossman, L.A. & Boulos, P.F.1996Numerical methods for modeling water quality in distribution systems: A comparison📏
Rossman, L.A., Clark, R.M. & Grayman, W.M.1994Modeling chlorine residuals in drinking-water distribution systems🧪
Todini, E. & Pilati, S.1988A gradient method for the solution of looped pipe networks📏
Todini, E. & Rossman L.A.2013Unified Framework for Deriving Simultaneous Equation Algorithms for Water Distribution Networks📏
Wagner, J.M., Shamir, U. & Marks, D.H.1988Water distribution reliability: Simulation methods💧

Monday, November 20, 2023

SWMM 5 and ICM SWMM: A Powerful Duo for Urban Drainage Modeling 🤩

 SWMM 5 and ICM SWMM: A Powerful Duo for Urban Drainage Modeling 🤩

SWMM 5 🌧️, a free program developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), is a widely used tool for simulating the hydraulics and hydrology of urban drainage systems. ICM SWMM 💧 seamlessly integrates the SWMM 5 C engine into ICM as an ICM SWMM Network, unleashing the combined power of both platforms.

This integration empowers ICM SWMM to harness the comprehensive capabilities of SWMM 5 while also leveraging the extensive tools and features of ICM InfoWorks 🛠️ and the ICM 2D engine 🗺️. In essence, ICM SWMM stands as an enhanced version of SWMM 5, combining the strengths of both platforms to tackle complex drainage challenges with greater efficiency and accuracy 🎯.

Delving into the Key Components of ICM SWMM ⚙️:

  • SWMM 5 C engine ☔️: The core computational engine for hydraulic and hydrologic modeling, providing the foundation for analyzing urban drainage systems with precision.

  • ICM UX 📱: A user-friendly graphical interface that facilitates model setup, editing, and visualization, transforming complex data into intuitive visuals 📈📊.

  • CM Output 📄: A powerful output generation and management tool that enables users to extract, analyze, and present model results in various formats, empowering informed decision-making 💡.

  • Ruby 💎: A scripting language that provides flexibility in automating tasks and extending ICM SWMM's functionality, streamlining workflows and enhancing capabilities 🦾.

  • SQL 💻: Support for accessing and manipulating data from external databases, enhancing data integration capabilities and enabling seamless collaboration across platforms 🤝.

  • ICM Import 📂: Ability to import existing SWMM 5 models, ensuring a seamless transition and integration with ICM SWMM, eliminating the need for rework and saving valuable time ⏳.

ICM SWMM: A Comprehensive and Versatile Platform for Urban Drainage Modeling ☔️🛣️

ICM SWMM represents a comprehensive and versatile platform for urban drainage modeling, combining the established capabilities of SWMM 5 with the advanced features and tools of ICM InfoWorks. This combination empowers engineers and professionals to tackle complex drainage challenges with greater efficiency and accuracy, ensuring the optimal design and management of urban drainage systems for a healthier and more sustainable future 🌱🌎.

Friday, November 17, 2023

🌐 Employing SWMM Networks within InfoWorks ICM. 🌐

Employing SWMM Networks within InfoWorks ICM. 🌐

Embarking on the Digital Odyssey: Setting up SWMM Networks in InfoWorks ICM 🚀 In this digital era, akin to an interstellar journey, the first milestone is to incorporate a SWMM network into the database, akin to discovering a new galaxy through the Explorer window. Then, unveil this newly added SWMM network on the GeoPlan, much like unveiling a cosmic map. 🌌

Crafting the Digital Cosmos: Data Addition and Model Parameterization 🌟 As one crafts constellations in the sky, data is artfully added to the network. The process resembles aligning stars, where various options for model parameters are set - a crucial step much like aligning planets in a solar system. Pay particular attention to ensuring that network flow units and force main equations are correctly aligned. 🌠

The Galactic Network: Adding Objects and Defining Events 🛰️ Just as a galaxy is composed of diverse celestial bodies, the SWMM network is built with various objects - nodes, links, subcatchments, points, and polygons. These can be added through different methods, reflecting the diverse ways celestial objects form in the universe. Additionally, time-varying event data, the pulsars of our network, need to be specified, lending dynamic variability to our model. 🌍

Intertwining Fates: Linking Rainfall Events and Regulator Structures 🌧️ In the tapestry of our network galaxy, rainfall events act as nebulae, shaping the formation of our network. Ensure these are linked to the applicable network objects. Similarly, if regulator structures are the black holes of our system, define their control rules meticulously using the Control Rule Editor. 🌦️

The Snowy Comets: Specifying Snow Parameters ❄️ If your simulation orbits around modeling snow melt, do not forget to specify the snow parameters, akin to tracking comets in your cosmic model. 🌬️

The Dimensional Dance: Inclusion of 2D Simulations 🌈 For those daring to explore further dimensions, include a 2D simulation alongside the 1D one. This requires the creation of a 2D mesh, a step akin to unfolding the fabric of space-time. 🌀

Final Preparations: Validation and Simulation Settings 🛠️ Before launching this cosmic odyssey, validate the network. Correct any errors, much like fixing a spacecraft before a launch. Finally, set the parameters for your SWMM Run and embark on this digital journey. 🚀

The Journey's Fruit: Running Simulations and Harvesting Data 🌍 With dynamic wave routing at the heart of these simulations, akin to the pulsating core of a star, run your simulations. Then, observe the results, much like an astronomer gazing upon the outcomes of cosmic events. 📊

In this journey through the digital cosmos of SWMM Networks in InfoWorks ICM, we see a parallel to exploring the vast, mysterious universe. Each step, from setting up the network to running simulations, is akin to navigating through the endless expanse of space, uncovering the secrets held within our own created digital universe. 🌌🔭

SWMMReact - Issac Gardner

Source -

Thursday, November 16, 2023

💧ICM InfoWorks Link or Conduit 1D Solution Options 💧

 💧ICM InfoWorks Link or Conduit 1D Solution Options 💧

AspectConduit Model (Full Solution Model)Pressurised Pipe ModelForce Main ModelPermeable Solution ModelFinite Volume Solution Model
Basic DescriptionRepresents a link in the network, typically between two nodes.Used for specific cases like rising mains or inverted siphons.Advanced feature for pressurised systems, especially useful for long rising/force mains subject to low hydraulic heads.Used for modelling permeable pavements or similar structures.Developed for complex trans-critical flow scenarios, particularly useful for resolving hydraulic jumps within a conduit.
Key CharacteristicsBoundary conditions are of outfall or headloss type. <br> - Gradient defined by invert levels at each end. <br> - Variety of pre-defined cross-sectional shapes.Does not assign base flow or a Preissmann slot to a pipe. <br> - More accurately predicts velocities and storage.- Assumes pipe is always full.- Water level maintained at least to pipe soffit level. <br> - Can result in erroneous flow generation if used inappropriately.Governing equation based on Darcy's Law.Replaces individual conduit's solution while integrating with the existing node-matrix solver and boundary conditions. <br> - Utilizes a Roe Riemann solver for flux term resolution.
Model EquationsSaint-Venant equations (conservation of mass and momentum).Similar to the full model but with modifications for pressurised conditions.Uses the same equations as the Pressurised Pipe Model but with specific assumptions for application.Involves calculation of discharge using Darcy's Law and consideration of porosity and lateral inflow.Based on de Saint-Venant equations in conservative vector form for a control volume.
Hydraulic RoughnessTwo different values can be assigned for different parts of the conduit.Not specified.Not specified.Not specified.Not specified.
Sediment ConsiderationA permanent depth of sediment may be defined; no erosion or deposition considered.Not specified.Not specified.Not specified.Not specified.
Special Features- Non-standard cross-sectional shapes can be modelled. <br> - Preissmann slot for smooth transition between free surface and surcharged conditions.- Excludes modelling of the inertia term for pressure pipes if selected. <br> - Stay pressurised simulation parameters option to prevent negative depths.- Intermediate points such as junctions should be represented using break nodes. <br> - Negative hydraulic grade lines may occur.- Modelling of lateral inflow and porosity.- Capable of resolving transitions between sub- and super-critical flows. <br> - Implicit terms linearised with a first-order Taylor series expansion. <br> - Friction slope defined as a part of the equations.
Appropriate Use CasesSuitable for a wide range of scenarios including both closed pipes and open channels.Recommended for specific scenarios like rising mains where pressurisation is a key factor.Best used in pressurised pipes, particularly for long rising mains. Not recommended for gravity pipes.Ideal for scenarios involving permeable media.Best for scenarios where there are transitions between sub- and super-critical flows, and for accurately modelling hydraulic jumps.

This table provides a high-level comparison of the different solution models, highlighting their unique features, governing equations, and appropriate use cases. If you need more detailed information or specific aspects of these models, feel free to ask!

AI Rivers of Wisdom about ICM SWMM

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