**Subject:** Manhole Elevations in InfoSWMM and SWMM 5

Starting from the bottom of the manhole you have these regions of computational interest:

1.

Manhole Invert to the lowest link invert – the node continuity equation is used with the area of the manhole being the default surface area of a manhole,

2.

Lowest Link Invert to the Highest Link Crown Elevation – the node continuity equation is used with surface of the node being normally half of the surface area of the incoming and outgoing links,

3.

Highest Manhole Pipe Crown Elevation to Manhole Rim Elevation – the node surcharge algorithm in which the surface area of the manhole is not used and the surcharge depth is iterated until the inflow and the outflows of the node are in balance,

4.

The region above the Manhole Rim Elevation which can use one of four options to calculate the depth and/or flow out of or into the manhole:

1. No Surcharge Depth is entered and No Ponding area is used – the excess water into the manhole is lost to the network and shows up as internal outflow in the continuity tables,

2. A Ponding Area is used and the excess flow will pond on the surface of the manhole and later go back down into the conveyance pipes.

3. A Surcharge Depth is used and the depth will continue to be calculated using the node surcharge algorithm in which the surface area of the manhole is not used and the surcharge depth is iterated until the inflow and the outflows of the node are in balance,

4. A Dual Drainage system is simulated and the excess flow of the manhole is simulated in the street gutters or the actual street,

5. You use a 1D/2D linkage between the 1D manhole and 1D links to a 2D Mesh and simulate the flow out and the flow into the manhole using a bottom outlet orifice that switches automatically between weir and orifice flow based on the depth on top of the manhole.