Sunday, October 29, 2023

Suggestion for Mike Urban Import to ICM InfoWorks

 Question on LI that I thought you could use about Mike Urban to ICM: ๐Ÿค” Could you suggest how we might convert a Mike Urban model into InfoWorks ICM? I've considered converting it to MOUSE first and then importing it into ICM. However, this method seems to omit many attributes when importing into ICM.

Answer: ๐ŸŒŸ Great query! Did you know that ICM can directly import MEX, UND, and HGF files from Mike Urban? These files are all in CSV format. ๐Ÿ“ What I typically do is tweak the MEX file, creating two versions: UND for the network ๐ŸŒ and HGF for catchments ๐Ÿž️. Here's a little secret: while both files contain similar data, ICM selectively reads specific sections from the UND and others from the HGF. ๐Ÿ”

One challenge you've pinpointed is that ICM interprets the 2010 version of Mike Urban. But, the silver lining here is that since these files are in CSV format, you can harness the power of ICM's Open Data Import Center (ODIC)๐Ÿš€ to integrate the omitted data from the CSVs. You simply load a CSV file and map the Mike Urban data to the corresponding ICM data. ๐Ÿ—บ️

So, here's my two-fold recommendation: First, use ICM's import function ๐Ÿ”„, and then leverage the ODIC to incorporate any missing data. I sincerely hope this strategy streamlines your process! ✨


UND for the network ๐ŸŒ and HGF for catchments in the Import Dialog


Saturday, October 28, 2023

InfoSWMM Utilities Menu

  InfoSWMM Utilities Menu commands:

๐Ÿ”Ž Locate: The Locate command is pivotal in pinpointing a node, pipe, or element by ID within an InfoSWMM project. This function is also accessible from the Model Explorer - Attribute Tab toolbar. See: Locate ๐Ÿ”

๐Ÿ”„ Change ID: The Change ID command is a convenient tool that allows the user to alter the InfoSWMM database identification for any element from one value to another, provided that the new value for that element is unique. Simply select the Desired Element Type to change, type in the Old ID followed by the New ID. Clicking Apply will effectuate the ID change for that element. Click here to learn more. ๐Ÿ†”

๐Ÿšฐ Pipe Invert: To corroborate the invert order of gravity mains, navigate to the InfoSWMM button, Utilities menu and select Pipe Invert Order. Select any of the commands, and then the user has the choice to either select pipes individually or drag a window across all desired elements. Once the pipes have been selected, right-mouse click and choose the Enter option or hit the Enter key on your keyboard. ⬇️

๐Ÿ”— Connectivity: The connectivity feature is enriched with many elements that assist the user in ensuring that connectivity is established prior to a model being run. It's paramount to note that connectivity is requisite for InfoSWMM to run a hydraulic simulation. Click here to learn more. ๐Ÿ”€

๐Ÿ”ง Network Review/Fix: The Network Review/Fix Tool is a robust network drawing examination and correction application destined for constructing reliable, credible working models ready for analysis. It extends a comprehensive functionality to swiftly identify and rectify network topology problems and data flaws that may emerge from digitizing a model or constructing it using pre-existing GIS and CAD datasets. See: Network Review/Fix Tool ๐Ÿ› ️

๐Ÿ—ƒ️ Database: The database feature facilitates the user in utilizing database management from within InfoSWMM to discover and amend database flaws or problems. Click here to learn more. ๐Ÿ“‚

๐Ÿ”™ Recall: The recall command (or Undelete) permits the user to recall a deleted pipe or node from the project database. It's crucial to note that when a record is expunged from a database, it is only "marked" for deletion (unless the user has activated the Auto Database Packing feature in the Project Preferences). Click here to learn more. ♻️

๐Ÿ”„ Update DB from Map: This feature accords the user the ability to recreate some or all of the project databases from the graphics in the InfoSWMM project from the project databases. Click here to learn more. ๐Ÿ”„

๐Ÿ”„ Update Map from DB: This feature empowers the user to regenerate the map graphics from the project database to ascertain that the map view and the database encompass the same data. Click here to learn more. ๐Ÿ”„

๐ŸŒ Update Spatial Indexes: The Update Spatial Index command will ameliorate the map refresh rate in ArcMap. When there are tables joined to an InfoSWMM layer, ArcMap will not update the spatial indexes when those tables have been modified. The Update Spatial Indexes command will update the joined tables for an enhanced map refresh rate. ๐Ÿ”„

Clear Message Board: Employ this command to clear the InfoSWMM Message Board. The InfoSWMM message board exhibits messages, warnings and/or errors during, before and after an InfoSWMM simulation. ❗

Clear Validation Result: Employ this feature to clear the view from the Validation Message Board. ❌


Name & Description

  • ๐Ÿ” Locate: The locate feature is a handy tool that enables the user to search for a desired network element by its ID or by its description. With the locate feature, one can effortlessly search for and automatically zoom in to a desired node, link, or Subcatchment.

  • ๐Ÿ”„ Change ID: The change ID feature is a simple yet powerful tool that allows the user to alter the ID of any data element.

  • ๐Ÿ”— Connectivity: The connectivity submenu is instrumental in verifying network connectivity before launching a simulation. When importing a model from an external data source (GIS, infrastructure inventory, other stormwater models, etc.), it's critical that the network representation is accurately constructed (e.g., each conduit is connected to exactly two nodes, each node is connected to at least one conduit). The features available under the connectivity submenu enable the user to ensure this.

  • ๐Ÿ”ง Network Review/Fix: The Network Review/Fix Tool is a robust application that is vital for constructing reliable, credible working models ready for analysis. It offers users a complete toolkit to quickly identify and automatically correct any network topology problems (e.g., disconnected nodes) and data flaws (e.g., duplicated conduits or nodes) that may emerge from digitizing a model or constructing it using pre-existing GIS and CAD datasets. The Tool comprises many useful applications including: Trace Connected Nodes, Trace Network, Trace Upstream Network, Trace Downstream Network, and Locate Parallel Conduits.

  • ๐Ÿ—ƒ️ Database: The database tools submenu is a valuable asset for the modeler in maintaining and managing project databases.

  • ๐Ÿ”™ Recall: The recall command is utilized to restore – or undelete – network components that have been deleted.

  • ๐Ÿ”„ Update DB from Map: The update DB from MAP command is essential for updating the current project’s database tables based on the current state of the network drawing.

  • ๐Ÿ”„ Update Map from DB: The update MAP from DB command could be utilized to redraw the current project’s network map based on Geometry Data (i.e., X, Y coordinates of the elements) and the TO node and the FROM node information of conduits.

  • Clear Message Board: This feature enables the erasure of the information currently displayed on the message tab of the message board.

  • Clear Validation Result: This feature enables the clearing of the information currently displayed on the validation tab of the message board.

Friday, October 27, 2023

๐Ÿ’ง๐ŸŒฑ Infiltration Models ๐ŸŒฑ๐Ÿ’ง - https://www.epa.gov/water-research/infiltration-models

 ๐Ÿ’ง๐ŸŒฑ Infiltration Models ๐ŸŒฑ๐Ÿ’ง

Dive into the world of infiltration models presented on our platform! These models were crafted using the sophisticated Mathcad Plus 6.0. ๐Ÿ–ฅ️ Please note: Mathcad is a trademark of Mathsoft, Inc. The use of this or any commercial product doesn't imply any endorsement or recommendation by EPA. Ensure you've configured your browser to recognize and launch the MathCad application. Alternatively, you can save the worksheet for later by right-clicking and choosing “Save Link As” or “Save Target As.”

๐ŸŒง️ Understanding Water Infiltration ๐ŸŒ

When rain or irrigation showers the land, water starts its journey, seeping through the soil via infiltration. If the water supply rate exceeds the soil's infiltration capacity, the excess water either pools on the surface or turns into runoff. The term "infiltrability" refers to the soil's maximum absorption rate. This rate indirectly determines how much water will flow over the surface and how much will permeate the soil. The water's journey within the soil is beautifully illustrated in Figure 1.

๐ŸŒฑ Zones of Water Infiltration ๐ŸŒฑ In our ideal soil profile, there are five distinct zones:

  1. Saturated Zone - A realm where water fills every pore.
  2. Transition Zone – Where water content decreases rapidly with depth.
  3. Transmission Zone – Characterized by a gradual change in water content.
  4. Wetting Zone – A zone where water content decreases sharply from transmission zone levels.
  5. Wetting Front – The boundary separating wet and dry soil.

Water's movement within the soil is governed by various factors like rain duration, soil properties, vegetation, and surface texture.

๐ŸŒ Dive Into the Models ๐ŸŒ

  1. SCS Model ๐ŸŒŠ An empirically crafted model, the SCS approach visualizes the infiltration process. It balances physical representation and mathematical function to mimic observed infiltration features. Explore more with the SCS MathCad Code ๐Ÿ“ฅ.

  2. Philip's Two-Term Model ๐ŸŒฆ️ Developed by Philips in 1957, this model is a truncated power series solution, essential for the early stages of infiltration. Delve deeper with the Philip's Two-Term MathCad Code ๐Ÿ“ฅ.

  3. Layered Green Ampt Model ๐ŸŒฟ Modified to compute water infiltration in diverse soils, this model is indispensable for layered terrains. Discover more with the Layered Green Ampt MathCad Code ๐Ÿ“ฅ.

  4. Explicit Green Ampt Model ๐Ÿ’ฆ A fundamental model that describes water's journey into the soil. It’s a favorite due to its simplicity and efficiency. Dive in with the Explicit Green Ampt MathCad Code ๐Ÿ“ฅ.

  5. Constant Flux Green Ampt Model ๐ŸŒง️ This model requires two formulations: one for when the water application rate is less than soil's capacity, and another for when it exceeds. Explore with the Constant Flux Green Ampt MathCad Code ๐Ÿ“ฅ.

  6. Infiltration/Exfiltration Model ๐ŸŒพ This model, crafted by Eagleson in 1978, highlights the dynamic balance between infiltration and exfiltration. Get started with the Infiltration/Exfiltration MathCad Code ๐Ÿ“ฅ.

๐Ÿ’ก For an in-depth exploration, check out our comprehensive report: Estimation of Infiltration Rate in the Vadose Zone.

Infiltration Models

SCS Model

The SCS model is an empirically developed approach to the water infiltration process (Jury, et al. 1991). It has been developed by first finding a mathematical function whose shape as a function of time matches the observed features of the infiltration rate. This function is then provided a physical explanation of the process. In semi-empirical models, most physical processes are represented by commonly accepted and simplistic conceptual methods rather than by equations derived from fundamentally physical principles. The commonly used semi-empirical infiltration model in the fields of soil physics and hydrology is the SCS model. A scenario was chosen to simulate water infiltration into a soil for conditions with rainfall and surface runoff by using the SCS model. Input parameters and simulation results are discussed in Estimation of Infiltration Rate in the Vadose Zone: Compilation of Simple Mathematical Models, Volume II 

Philip's Two-Term Model

The Philip's Two-Term model (PHILIP2T) is a truncated power series solution developed by Philips (1957). During the initial stages of infiltration (when t is very small), the first term of the model/equation dominates the process. In this stage, the vertical infiltration proceeds at almost the same rate as absorption or horizontal infiltration. In this stage of infiltration, the gravity component, represented by the second term of the model/equation, is negligible. As infiltration continues, the second term becomes progressively more important until it dominates the infiltration process. Philips (1957) suggested the use of the two-term model in applied hydrology when t is not too large. A scenario was chosen to simulate the water infiltration into a sandy soil by using the PHILIP2T model. Input parameters and simulation results are discussed in Estimation of Infiltration Rate in the Vadose Zone: Compilation of Simple Mathematical Models, Volume II 

Layered Green Ampt Model

The Green Ampt model has been modified in this application to calculate water infiltration into non-uniform soils by several researchers (Bouwer 1969, Fok 1970, Moore 1981, Ahuja and Ross 1983). The implementation for layered systems (GALAYER) used for this project was developed by Flerchinger, et al. (1989). Specifically, the model could be used for the determination of water infiltration over time in vertically heterogeneous soils. Two simulation scenarios were selected for inclusion in the applications worksheet. The first scenario was to estimate water infiltration into a soil with two layers (sand over a loam). The second scenario was designed to estimate the water infiltration into a soil with three layers (sand over loam, over clay). Comparisons and results are presented and discussed in Estimation of Infiltration Rate in the Vadose Zone: 

Explicit Green Ampt Model

The initial Green Ampt model was the first physically based model/equation describing the infiltration of water into soil. It has been the subject of considerable development in soil physics and hydrology, owing to its simplicity and satisfactory performance for a great variety of water infiltration problems. This model yields cumulative infiltration and the infiltration rate as an implicit function of time (i.e., given a value of time (t), values of the cumulative infiltration (I) and the infiltration rate (q) can be directly obtained. Thus, the model functions are q(t) and I(t), rather than of t(q) and t(I).) The Explicit Green-Ampt model as defined and used for this project's application was developed by Salvucci and Entekhabi (1994). The application provides a straightforward and accurate estimation of infiltration for any given time. This formulation supposedly yields an error of less than 2 percent at all times when compared to the exact values resulting from the Implicit Green Ampt model.  

Constant Flux Green Ampt Model

For the constant flux Green-Ampt model, two formulations are required: one for the condition that the application rate (r) is less than the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), and one for the condition that the application rate is greater than the saturated hydraulic conductivity. When r<Ks, the infiltration rate (q) is always equal to the surface application rate (r) and the surface never becomes saturated. When r>Ks , the surface becomes saturated at the time of the initial application (t0)

Infiltration/Exfiltration Model

The vertical movement of water in the soil profile from the surface to water table is a dynamic condition. It can be conceptualized as being composed of basically two predominant processes: infiltration and exfiltration. Exfiltration can be envisioned as the processes dominating during drying periods; water released during this period can be thought of as being released through evaporation to the atmosphere. The model (INFEXF) selected for this project is a formulation of the Philips model developed by Eagleson (1978) to account for water infiltration during the wetting season and exfiltration during the drying season. Infiltration and exfiltration as described in this application assumes the soil medium to be effectively semi-infinite and the internal soil water content at the beginning of each storm event and inter-storm period is assumed to be uniform at its long-term and space-time average. The exfiltration equation is modified for the presence of natural vegetation through the approximate introduction of a distributed sink representing the moisture extraction by plant roots. Two scenarios are presented in the accompanying worksheet applications: water infiltration during the rainy season and water exfiltration during the drying season.  

Emoji EPANET2.2 Reference Table

  Author(s) Year Title Emoji Bhave 1991 Analysis of Flow in Water Distribution Networks ๐Ÿ“˜ Clark, R.M. 1998 Chlorine demand and Trihalometha...