Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) Information for watershed water quality, hydrology and hydraulics modelers (Note this Blog is not associated with the EPA). You will find Blog Posts and Twitter Embeds on the Subjects of SWMM5, InfoSWMM, InfoSewer, SWMMLive, InfoSWMM SUSTAIN, SWMM4 and SWMM in general.
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Surcharged Node and the Link Connection in SWMM 5
Subject:SurchargedNode and the LinkConnection in SWMM5
A surchargednode in SWMM5 uses this point iteration equation (Figure 1):
dY/dt = dQ / The sum of the Connecting Link values of dQ/dH
where Y is the depth in the node, dt is the time step, H is the head across the link (downstream – upstream), dQ is the net inflow into the node and dQ/dHis the derivative with respect to H of the link St Venant equation. If you are trying to calibrate the surchargednode depth, the main calibration variables are the time step and the link roughness:
1. Mannings's N 2. Hazen-Williams or 3. Darcy-Weisbach
The link roughness is part of the term dq1 in the St Venant solution and the other loss terms are included in the term dq5. You can adjust the roughness of the surchargedlink to affect the node surcharge depth.
Figure 1. The Node Surcharge Equation is a function of the net inflow and the sum of the term dQ/dH in all connecting links. Generally, as you increase the roughness the value of dQ/dH increases and the denominator of the term dY/dt = dQ/dQdH increases.
Figure 2. The value of dQ/dH in a link as the roughness of the link increases.
Soffit Level (pipe technology)The top point of the inside open section of a pipe or box conduit. The soffit is the highest point of the internal surface of a pipe or culvert at any cross-section. The soffit is also referred to as the pipe obvert. So it is not quite the Crown of the Pipe. Here is an image I found that hopefully explains it better.
Comment: A really nice water analogy for the field properties Divergence, Curl and Gradient from the Blog Starts With a Bang
....it's pretty mathematically intensive, but what's missing from most textbooks and E&M courses are physical explanations of what the mathematics means. For instance, I've started teaching about fields, and pretty much every textbook out there goes on and on about the properties of fields. They say you can do three things to fields, take the gradient, divergence, orcurl of them. (Are you asleep yet? I'm sorry!) What do these things mean? An easy way to picture it is in terms of water. If you placed a drop of water anywhere on, say,Earth, the magnitude and direction of how it rolls down is the gradient of the Earth's elevation. If you let that drop of water flow, as it goes downhill, it can either spread out or converge to a narrower stream. When we quantify that, that's what the divergence of the field is. And finally, when that water is …
Engine Error NumberDescription ERROR 101: memory allocation error. ERROR 103: cannot solve KW equations for Link ERROR 105: cannot open ODE solver. ERROR 107: cannot compute a valid time step. ERROR 108: ambiguous outlet ID name for Subcatchment