Friday, December 28, 2012

Singapore - Catching Every Drop of Rain

Singapore - Catching Every Drop of Rain

The source of the map of the rivers of Singapore is the Singapore PUB
As a small island that doesn't have natural aquifers and lakes and with little land to collect rainwater, Singapore needs to maximize whatever it can harvest.
Currently, Singapore uses two separate systems to collect rainwater and used water. Rainwater is collected through a comprehensive network of drains, canals, rivers and stormwater collection ponds before it is channelled to Singapore's 17 reservoirs for storage. This makes Singapore one of the few countries in the world to harvest urban stormwater on a large scale for its water supply.
The newest reservoirs are Punggol and Serangoon Reservoirs which are our 16th and 17th reservoirs. By 2011, the water catchment area has increased from half to two-thirds of Singapore’s land surface with the completion of the Marina, Punggol and Serangoon reservoirs.
With all the major estuaries already dammed to create reservoirs, PUB aims to harness water from the remaining streams and rivulets near the shoreline using technology that can treat water of varying salinity. This will boost Singapore’s water catchment area to 90% by 2060,
The goal is to capture every drop of rain (Figure 1)


Reservoirs
Pandan ReservoirKranji Reservoir
Jurong Lake ReservoirMacRitchie Reservoir
Upper Peirce ReservoirLower Peirce Reservoir
Bedok ReservoirUpper Seletar Reservoir
Lower Seletar ReservoirPoyan Reservoir
Murai ReservoirTengeh Reservoir
Sarimbun ReservoirPulau Tekong Reservoir
Marina ReservoirSerangoon Reservoir
Punggol Reservoir

Rivers
Singapore RiverSungei Kallang
Rochor RiverSungei Whampoa
Geylang RiverSungei Bedok
Sungei KetapangSungei Changi
Sungei SelarangSungei Loyang
Sungei TampinesSungei Api Api
Sungei BlukarSungei Serangoon
Sungei PunggolSungei Tongkang
Sungei PinangSungei Seletar
Sungei Khatib BongsuSungei Seletar Simpang Kiri
Sungei SembawangSungei Mandai
Sungei ChinaSungei Mandai Kechil
Sungei Peng SiangSungei Tengah
Sungei KangkarSungei Buloh Besar
Sungei JurongSungei Lanchar
Sungei PandanSungei Ulu Pandan



No comments:

InfoSWMM Version Numbers and the version of Arc Map they use and which EPA SWMM5 Engine is used for Each InfoSWMM Version

 InfoSWMM Version Numbers  InfoSWMM Version 14.7  Update 3 for Arc Map 10 to 10.8 and Windows 7/8/8.1/10 - EPA SWMM 5.1.014   4/12/2020   ...