Wednesday, August 15, 2018
SWMM 5.1 Update History up to SWMM 5.1.013
SWMM 5.1 Update History
Build 5.1.013 (05/10/18)
1. A subcatchment's depression storage depth, its pervious surface roughness
(Mannings n) and its hydraulic conductivity can now be adjusted on a
monthly basis by assigning monthly time patterns to these properties.
For conductivity, a subcatchment-specific adjustment pattern will
override any project-wide set of climate adjustment factors.
2. LID controls can now treat a designated portion of a subcatchment’s
pervious area runoff (previously they could only treat impervious area
3. Permeable pavement LID units subjected to clogging over time can now
have their permeability only partly restored at periodic time
4. The following options were added to control flow out of LID units
through their underdrains:
- A storage layer water depth above which a closed drain automatically
- A storage layer water depth below which an open drain automatically
- A control curve that specifies how the nominal drain flow rate is
adjusted as a function of the head seen by the drain.
5. Pollutant removal percentages can now be assigned to LID processes that
have underdrains. The removals apply to flow leaving the unit through the
drain and not to any surface overflow from the unit.
6. The Subcatchment Runoff Summary Report now includes both pervious and
impervious total runoff volumes (prior to any LID treatment) for each
7. A choice of method used to handle surcharging has been added to the list
of Dynamic Wave options. The EXTRAN method continues to use the traditional
Surcharge Algorithm to update the head at surcharged nodes. The new SLOT
option attaches a Preissmann Slot to closed conduits flowing more than 98.5%
full that eliminates the need to switch to the Surcharge Algorithm for
8. A closed vessel can now be modeled as a storage unit node that is allowed
to pressurize up to a designated Surcharge Depth value. If this depth is 0
then the unit is modeled as before as an open vessel.
9. A weir's discharge coefficient can now be allowed to vary with head across
the weir by assigning it a Weir Curve (see Weir Properties). Weir curves
tabulate coefficient values at specific head levels.
10. When the upstream offset of a regulator link is below the invert of its
downstream node it is now automatically raised only for Dynamic Wave flow
routing with a warning message issued. For other flow routing choices only
the warning message is issued and no automatic offset adjustment is made.
11. Users can now choose to set a periodic time step for control rule evaluation.
If this step is 0 then rules are tested as before at every routing time step.
12. The option was added to have time series results for a project's nodes and
links be reported as average values computed over a reporting time step
instead of being interpolated point values at the end of the reporting time
13. The following bugs were fixed:
- Unused rain gages are no longer examined when adjusting the wet runoff
- The surface inflow rate to a permeable pavement LID unit is not allowed
to exceed the pavement’s permeability.
- The Minimum Nodal Surface Area dynamic wave routing option was being used
as surface area always available at a node instead of an amount available
only when the surface area of the node's connecting links fell below it.
- The top width of a full closed rectangular cross section shape is now set
to 0 since it can no longer supply any surface area.
- The ‘C’ parameter value for a Mitered Corrugated Metal Arch culvert was
- An incorrect reporting of flow continuity error for systems with backflow
through outfall nodes was fixed.
1. Various property editors and dialog forms were updated to accommodate the newly
added engine features (monthly time patterns for subcatchment properties, LID
underdrain parameters, LID pollutant removal, choice of surcharge method,
storage unit surcharge depth, weir coefficient curve, control rule time step,
and reporting of average values).
2. A bug that failed to record the choice of number of barrels for rectangular
conduits in the Cross-Section Editor form was fixed.
3. A bug in the GetLinkOutVal function of the Uoutput.pas unit was fixed.
Build 5.1.012 (03/14/17)
1. The direct.h header is now only #included in the swmm5.c file when
compiled for Windows. (swmm5.c)
2. Engine Update #7 in Build 5.1.011 (internally aligning the wet time
step with the reporting time step) was redacted since it caused
problems for certain combinations of time steps. (runoff.c)
3. A subcatchment's bottom elevation is now used instead its parent
aquifer's value when saving a water table value to the binary results
4. A bug that failed to limit surface inflitration into a saturated rain
garden LID unit was fixed. (lidproc.c)
5. Calculation of the maximum limit on LID drain flows was modified to
produce smoother results at low depths above the drain offset.
6. A variable used for reporting detailed LID results is now properly
initialized. (lid.c & lid.h)
7. The occasional writing of duplicate lines to the detailed LID results
file was fixed. (lidproc.c)
8. The conversion from conduit seepage rate per unit area to rate per unit
of length was changed to use top width instead of wetted perimeter since
only vertical seepage is assumed to occur. (link.c)
9. The coefficient of the evaporation/seepage term in the dynamic wave
equation for updating conduit flow was corrected (from 1.5 to 2.5).
10. The Engels flow equation for side flow weirs was corrected (the original
equation used in SWMM 3 & 4 was incorrect). (link.c)
11. Crest length reductions for end contractions are no longer used for
trapezoidal weirs. (link.c)
12. The Slope Correction Factor for culverts with mitered inlets was corrected.
13. An entry in the table of gravel roadway weir coefficients was corrected.
14. The user supplied minimum slope option is now initialized to 0.0
(meaning none is provided). (project.c)
15. NO/YES are no longer accepted as attributes for the NORMAL_FLOW_LIMITED
dynamic wave simulation option (only SLOPE/FROUDE/BOTH are valid).
16. Changes were made so that the Routing Events and Skip Steady Flow
options work correctly together. (routing.c & globals.h)
17. Steady state periods with no flow routing no longer contribute to the
routing time step statistics. (stats.c and report.c)
18. When compiling statistics on the frequency of full conduit flow the
number of barrels is now accounted for. (stats.c)
19. Under kinematic wave or steady flow routing, the water level in
storage nodes that have no outflow links is now updated correctly
over time. (flowrout.c)
20. The formula for the depth at maximum width for the Modified Basket Handle
cross section was corrected. (xsect.c)
1. Profile plots now correctly update the main and axis title text when
changed via the Profile Plot Options dialog. Also the downstream
offset height of non-conduit links is set to 0 on the plot.
2. The LID Control Editor now sets the Storage Layer Thickness to 0 when
a Rain Garden is selected as the type of LID being edited.
3. An OnChange event handler was added to each of the LID Control Editor's
data fields to record when a value is changed.
Build 5.1.011 (08/22/16)
1. Detailed flow routing can now be restricted to a set of pre-defined
event periods. The event periods are listed in an [EVENTS] section
of the SWMM input file, where each line contains a start date,
start time, end date and end time for each event.
2. New functions, swmm_getError() and swmm_getWarnings(), were added to
the API used for interfacing SWMM with other applications (see the
updated Interfacing Guide for details).
3. The error codes returned by the API functions (swmm_open, swmm_start,
swmm_step, etc.) were corrected.
4. The new format for precipitation amounts in rainfall files downloaded
from the NCDC's Climate Data Online service are now recognized.
5. Monthly adjustments for hydraulic conductivity are now also
applied to the internal Green-Ampt "Lu" parameter which varies with
the square root of conductivity.
6. A check was added to insure that subcatchment imperviousness does
not exceed 100 percent.
7. Runoff time steps are now adjusted to stay aligned with the Report
time step (making model validation easier).
8. A time step correction was made when computing the outflow volume
produced by an outfall that sends its outflow back onto a designated
9. The LID routines were modified so that native soil infiltration is
satisfied first when it occurs along with underdrain flow, instead
of the other way around.
10. The allowable offset height for an LID underdrain is no longer
limited to the top of the storage layer thus allowing upturned
drains to be modelled.
11. The detailed LID report file now lists results by both date/time
and elapsed hours and reports water level instead of moisture
content for permeable pavement.
12. If the offset of the opening of a regulator link is below its
downstream node invert it is now raised to the invert level
and a warning message is still issued.
13. A weir with an open rectangular shape and non-zero slope parameter
will no longer generate an input error message - the slope value is
14. An illegal array index bug that could occur when checking the pump
curve type for an Ideal Pump in dynamic wave flow routing was fixed.
15. A redundant unit conversion of max. reported depth from the Node
Depth Summary table was removed.
16. Node surcharging is now only reported for dynamic wave flow routing
and storage nodes are never classified as surcharged.
17. A failure to convert a storage unit's surface area curve from metric
to internal units when computing bottom exfiltration was fixed.
18. A bug that caused a link's TIMEOPEN variable (used in control rule
conditions) to be re-set to 0 when its setting changed from one
partly opened state to another was fixed.
19. The Status Report no longer lists control actions taken by modulated
controls since they occur continuously over time and can produce an
enormous number of actions.
20. A failure to convert a Roadway Weir's road width that was in metric
units was fixed.
21. A bug that caused the saved link settings read from a hot start
file to be incorrect in a model containing pollutants was fixed.
22. Rule premises can now include SIMULATION DAYOFYEAR as a condition,
where day of year is either in month/day format or a number between
1 and 365.
23. A refactoring bug that affected water quality mass balance results
for Steady Flow routing was fixed.
24. The function that decodes the fractional part of a date/time value
into hours:minutes:seconds was modified so that rounding doesn't
cause the time to exceed 24 hours.
25. Microsoft exception handling statements are now only enabled when
the engine is compiled with the Microsoft C compiler.
1. A new sub-category of simulation options named Events was added along
with an Event Editor dialog to allow users to restrict detailed flow
routing calculations to specific periods of time. See the Help file
topic under Reference | Special Dialog Forms | Events Editor.
2. When a Rain Garden is selected in the LID Control Editor, the Storage
layer tab now appears so that a bottom Seepage Rate can be specified.
This fixes the problem of having no inflitration out of a Rain Garden.
3. After a simulation has been completed the Run Status dialog box now
indicates if any warning messages have been issued.
4. A previously uninitialized variable (elapsed simulation time) passed
between the GUI and the engine is now assigned an initial value.
5. The ground surface line on a Profile Plot can now be made visible or
not via the Profile Plot Options dialog, with the default being visible.
6. An option to use thick lines to outline conduits and the ground surface
in Profile Plots was added.
Build 5.1.010 (08/05/15)
1. A modified version of Green-Ampt infiltration (MODIFIED GREEN AMPT) was
added that no longer redistributes upper zone moisture deficit during
low rainfall events. The original authors of SWMM's Green-Ampt model
have endorsed this modified version. It will produce more infiltration
for storm events that begin with low rainfall intensities, such as the
SCS design storm distributions.
2. A new type of weir, a ROADWAY weir, has been added. It models roadway
overtopping using the FHWA HDS-5 method and would typically be used in
parallel with a culvert conduit.
3. Rule premises can now test whether a link has been open (or closed) for
a specific period of time. See the Help file for more details.
4. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity ("K") was added to the list of
variables that can be used in a user-supplied groundwater flow equation.
5. A bug introduced in update 2 of release 5.1.008 that failed to include
infiltration from LID units into the groundwater routine was fixed.
6. A bug that failed to properly initialize the flag indicating that one or
more LID controls was initially wet was fixed.
7. Duplicate printing of the first line of an LID detailed report file was
8. The Hargreaves evaporation forumla was modified to use a 7-day running
average of daily temperatures, instead of just single day values, as
recommended by the formula's authors.
9. Daily potential evapotranspiration (PET) was added as a system output
10. The qualrout.c module was refactored to make it more compact and easier
11. Storage seepage and evaporation losses are now based on the storage volume
at the end, not the start, of the prior time step.
12. The command line used to build the engine included in the "makefile"
for the GNU C/C++ compiler was corrected to include the OpenMP libraries.
1. Potential evapotranspiration (PET) was added as new system-wide variable
whose time series can be viewed with a graph or table.
2. A bug in the Number of Threads dropdown list on the Dynamic Wave Options
dialog was fixed.
3. Additional bugs in the Cross Section Editor remaining from changes made
in release 5.1.008 were fixed.
4. Changes were made to accommodate the new Modified Green-Ampt infiltration
option and the new Roadway weir option.
5. The automatic scaling of plots with all y-values the same was improved.
6. The automatic scaling of profile plots was improved and the ground surface
line was removed to improve clarity.
7. The function that automatically converts all link depth offsets to
elevation offsets now uses the node invert elevation value rather
than '*' for a zero offset.
8. A bug in using the Macro List on the Add-In Tools Properties form to
insert a selection into the Working Directory edit box was fixed.
Build 5.1.009 (04/30/2015)
1. A missing DLL file used to parallelize SWMM's flow routing
routine was added to the installation package.
1. A re-factoring bug that prevented running simulations longer
than 68 years was fixed.
2. An input parsing error that prevented the program from
recognizing a comparison between two variables in a
control rule premise was fixed.
3. A new warning message was added for when a control rule
premise compares two different types of variables.
4. When implementing 5.1.008 update 12, the runon to a
subcatchment fully occupied by LIDs was not being included
in the subcatchment's Summary Report.
5. A bug was fixed that allowed LID units to return outflow to
a subcatchment's pervious area even though LIDs occupied the
6. For quality routing the definition of a dry conduit/storage
node was changed to <= 1 mm of depth to avoid concentrations
from blowing up due to evaporation losses.
7. The units label for Total Inflow Volume in the Node Inflow
Summary table of a saved report file was corrected.
1. A bug introduced as a result of 5.1.008 GUI Update 11 that
prevented the name of a conduit's Transect or Shape Curve
from appearing in the Cross Section Editor was fixed.
2. A nicer default axis scaling routine is now used for time
series and scatter plots.
3. The user-supplied custom scaling for the vertical axis of a
profile plot is now recognized.
Build 5.1.008 (04/02/2015)
1. Monthly adjustments for hydraulic conductivity used for
rainfall infiltration and for exfiltration from storage
nodes and conduits was added.
2. LID drains can now send their outflow to a different node
or subcatchment than the parent subcatchment in which they
3. Conveyance system Outfall nodes now have the option to
send their outflow onto a subcatchment, to simulate
irrigation or complex LID treatment options.
4. A new LID practice, Rooftop Disconnection, has been added.
It allows one to explicitly model roof runoff with an
optional limit on the flow capacity of their downspouts.
Disconnection is specified by setting the Return To Pervious
Area field in the [LID_USAGE] section to 1.
5. An optional soil layer has been added to Permeable Pavement
LIDs so that a sand filter or bedding layer beneath the
pavement can be modeled.
6. Several new built-in variable names can now be used in
custom groundwater flow equations for porosity, unsaturated
hydraulic conductivity, infiltration rate, and percolation
rate. See the Help file for more details.
7. A Groundwater Summary table has been added that reports
several groundwater statistics for each subcatchment.
8. A new option, the Minimum Variable Time Step, was added that
limits the smallest time step that can be computed under
variable time stepping for dynamic wave flow routing. In
previous releases it was fixed at 0.5 seconds which remains
the default. The smallest value it can now have is 0.001 sec.
9. The dynamic wave routing procedure was parallelized to take
advantage of multiple processors, making it run several times
faster. A new option, THREADS, sets the number of parallel
threads to use, where the default is 1.
10. A new column was added to the Node Depth Summary report table
that shows the maximum depth recorded at the Reporting Time Step
so it can be compared to the maximum depth attained over all
routing time steps also shown in the table.
11. Control rule premises can now contain conditions that compare
the values of a node or link variable at two different locations
(e.g. IF NODE 123 HEAD > NODE 456 HEAD) and node volume was
added as a condition clause variable.
12. When a subcatchment with LID controls receives runon from another
source (e.g., a subcatchment, LID drain or outfall node) the
runon is now distributed only across the non-LID area of the sub-
catchment instead of the full area. If a single LID takes up the
full subcatchment area then the runon is directed onto the LID.
13. Storage node HRT was added to the state variables saved in the
Hot Start file.
14. The threshold value for reporting a non-zero runoff result
was changed from 0.001 cfs to 0.001 inches/hr.
15. The calculation of overall flow routing mass balance was
modified to account for cases where some flow streams, like
total external inflow, are negative.
16. The "Surface Runoff" label in the Runoff Continuity Report was
replaced with "Total Runoff" since the value reported consists
of both surface runoff and LID drain flow.
17. The "Internal Outflow" label in the Flow Routing Continuity
Report was replaced with "Flooding Losses" to improve clarity.
18. The pollutant washoff routines were moved to a new code module
(surfqual.c) and revised to account for the reduction in
pollutant load that results from runoff flow reduction by LID
19. Initial flows for Steady Flow routing are now ignored since they
are not used in the routing calculation and the initial volume
associated with them contributed to system mass balance error.
20. The various types of lateral inflows to conveyance system nodes
are now evaluated at the date/time for the start of the routing
time step instead of at the end of the time step.
21. The final runoff and routing time steps are adjusted to insure
that the simulation's total duration is not exceeded.
22. When evaluating user-supplied math expressions, any NaN (Not a
Number) result (caused by an underflow, overflow or divide by zero)
is set to 0 so that the NaN doesn't propagate through subsequent
23. The evaporation rates read from a time series would only change
when a new day was reached (even though values at more frequent
intervals were present) and could cause a run to stop pre-
maturely in some rare cases.
24. The runoff read from a Hot Start file should have been assigned
to a subcatchment's newRunoff property, not to oldRunoff.
25. An indexing bug that caused Hot Start files with snowmelt
parameters to be read incorrectly was fixed.
26. The setting for a non-conduit link read from a Hot Start file
was not being used to initialize the link.
27. A bug in adjusting snowmelt for snow covered area derived from
an areal depletion curve was fixed.
28. Snowmelt should not have been included in the total
precipitation reported for a subcatchment since the snowfall
which produced it was already accounted for.
29. When computing a flow rate through the Drainage Mat of a Green
Roof LID unit, the mat's void ratio was being applied to the
water depth instead of to the mat's area.
30. The state of LID controls was not being considered when
choosing to use the wet or dry runoff time step which sometimes
lead to excessive LID continuity errors.
31. A re-factoring bug that left reporting time in minutes instead
of hours in the detailed LID results file was fixed and results
are now written to the file at each runoff time step where the
state of the LID unit changes.
32. Failure to initialize groundwater evaporation loss to 0 was
causing problems with the reported groundwater mass balance
for subcatchments that had no pervious area.
33. Excessive continuity errors for systems having conduits with
large seepage rates was fixed.
34. Pollutant loss through seepage in conduits and storage nodes was
not being included in the mass balance calculations.
35. Concentrations in conduits and storage nodes were not being
increased to account for loss of water volume when evaporation
36. Premature exiting of the routine that checks for capacity limited
links whenever a non-conduit link was encountered was fixed.
37. A bug in identifying the percent of time that a conduit has either
end full was fixed.
38. A re-factoring bug that prevented surcharged weirs (see Update 5
for 5.1.007) from passing any flow was fixed.
39. A bug in evaluating recursive calls to nodal water quality treatment
functions was fixed.
1. The missing July - December column labels were restored on both
the evaporation and wind speed tables in the Climatology Editor.
2. The label "Surface Water Height (Hsw)" in the Groundwater Flow
Editor was changed to "Surface Water Depth" to make clear that
it is the depth of water at the receiving node and not the height
of water above the aquifer bottom (or Hsw as shown in the dialog's
3. The label "Channel Bottom Height (Hcb)" also in the Groundwater
Flow Editor was changed to "Threshold Water Table Elev." to make
clear that it is an elevation and not a height above the aquifer
bottom (as Hcb is in the dialog's diagram).
4. A Groundwater Summary table was added to the form that displays
summary results tables.
5. Groundwater upper zone soil moisture and node lateral inflow are
now included in the abridged Hot Start file that the GUI can
produce (using the File | Export | Hot Start File command).
6. The column labels in the various sections of the SWMM input file
generated by the GUI were modified to better match the labels used
to describe the input file format in Appendix D of the Users Manual.
7. A "Route To" field was added to the Outfall Node property editor to
accommodate the new option of allowing outfall nodes to discharge
onto a subcatchment.
8. The Dynamic Wave page of the Simulation Options dialog was modified
to include the new Minimum Routing Time Step option and the new
Number of Threads option.
9. The LID Control Editor was updated to include the new Rooftop
Disconnection LID practice and the option to add a soil layer
to the Permeable Pavement practice.
10. A Drain Outlet field was added to the LID Usage Editor.
11. The conduit Cross Section Editor dialog was enhanced to display
a selectable list of standard size codes and their dimensions for
elliptical and arch pipes.
12. Custom changes made to the Map's Legends are now saved with the
rest of a project's settings in its .ini file.
13. Word wrapping was added to the Title/Notes display in the
Project Browser to make the contents easier to read.
14. Modal dialog message windows now appear centered over the form that
generates them instead of in the middle of the full display screen.
15. The style of all dropdown list boxes was changed to make them more
Build 5.1.007 (9/15/2014)
1. A new feature that provides monthly adjustments for
temperature, evaporation rate, and rainfall was added.
2. Support for reading the new GHCN-Daily climate data
files available from NCDC's Climate Data Online service
3. In addition to lateral groundwater flow, a custom
equation can now also be used for seepage flow to
a deeper groundwater aquifer.
4. The [GW_FLOW] section of the project file was renamed
to [GWF] and its format was changed to accommodate
both lateral and deep groundwater flow equations.
5. A new Weir parameter was added that specifies if the
weir can surcharge using an orifice equation or not.
Surcharging was the only option in SWMM 5.0 but was
switched to no surcharing in earlier 5.1 releases.
This new parameter accommodates both closed top weirs
that can surcharge and open channel weirs that cannot.
6. The formula used to recover infiltration capacity during
dry periods for the Modified Horton method was revised.
7. The initial cumulative infiltration into the upper soil
zone for Green-Ampt infiltration had been incorrectly
set to the maximum value instead of zero.
8. All of the Green-Ampt infiltration functions were
re-factored to make the code easier to follow.
9. The calculation of infiltration out of the bottom of a
Bio-Retention Cell or Permeable Pavement LID unit with a
zero-depth storage layer was corrected.
10. Most of the LID simulation routines were modified to
provide more accurate results under flooded conditions.
11. Results written to the detailed LID results report now
always correspond to a full reporting time step.
12. The name of the variable used to represent the height of
the receiving channel bottom in a user-defined groundwater
flow equation was corrected to match the name displayed
in the GUI's Groundwater Editor dialog (Hcb).
13. A problem with the program crashing when a climate file
was used to provide evaporation rates for open channels
and storage nodes when runoff was not computed (as when
there were no subcatchments in the project) was fixed.
14. Flow and pollutant routing mass balance accounting was
modified to correctly handle negative external inflows.
15. The procedure for computing the area available for seepage
out of a storage node that has a tabular storage curve was
16. Seepage from storage units can now be modeled using Green-
Ampt infiltration, which makes the seepage rate a function
of storage level. The constant seepage rate option can
still be used by setting the G-A initial moisture deficit
17. The function that finds depth as a function of volume from
a storage curve was corrected for the case where the depth
falls within a portion of the curve where area is constant
with depth (i.e., vertical side walls).
1. The Object Toolbar was restored.
2. A new page was added to the Climatology Editor to edit
values for monthly adjustments for temperature, evaporation,
3. A field for the new weir surcharge option was added to the
Weir Property editor.
4. A problem with the current project being closed without
asking if it should be saved first whenever a new style
theme was selected from the Program Preferences dialog
has been fixed.
5. The default seepage rate from an LID storage layer was changed.
6. The Infiltration Editor was restored for editing Green-Ampt
parameters for storage unit seepage loss.
7. The Groundwater Flow Equation Editor was extended to accept
equations for deep groundwater flow.
Build 5.1.006 (5/19/2014)
1. The updating of the next time that detailed LID results
should be written to file during a simulation was modified
to avoid an off-by-one error.
2. The number of decimal places for hourly evaporation written
to a detailed LID report was increased.
3. The amount of soil water available for evaporation in
LID units with soil layers wasn't being limited by the
water remaining below the wilting point.
4. The equation that computes the rate of water infiltrating
into permeable pavement LIDs had a misplaced parenthesis.
5. There was a units conversion error in computing the
contribution of a pollutant in direct precipitation
to the water quality on a subcatchment.
1. As a result of the switch to Delphi XE2 some components on
the Options and Climatology dialogs were not recording that
project data had changed after edits were made.
Build 5.1.005 (4/23/2014)
1. A problem with reading hydraulic results from a hot start
file was fixed.
1. The appearance of the Open File Dialog with preview panel
2. In the property Editor for storage nodes, the Ponded Area
property was made read-only since storage nodes are not
allowed to pond water.
3. Some issues with pop-up topic windows in the Help file
being obscured by the main Help window were fixed.
Build 5.1.004 (4/14/2014)
1. Support for the Ignore RDII analysis option was added to
1. A refactoring bug that ignored any changes to numerical
precision made in the Program Preferences dialog was fixed.
2. Another refactoring bug from 5.1.003 that caused projects
with groundwater aquifers not to run was fixed.
Build 5.1.003 (4/8/2014)
1. A new property, the Upper Zone Evap. Pattern, was added to
the Aquifer object. It allows one to adjust the aquifer's
upper zone evaporation fraction by month of the year.
2. A bug in writing/reading RDII flows to the new binary RDII
file was fixed.
1. A refactoring bug that prevented SWMM from working
correctly for users with non-US Windows regional settings
2. A refactoring bug the prevented the Group Delete feature from
working was fixed.
4. Issues with stay-on-top forms obscuring modal dialog forms,
with the Browser panel disappearing if its width was made too
small and with not being able to browse the Help system when a
modal form had focus were fixed (these unforseen issues were
caused by the switch to Delphi XE2 from Delphi 7).
5. The Aquifer Editor form was updated to accept the new upper
evaporation pattern property.
Build 5.1.002 (3/31/2014)
1. A bug that prevented hotstart files with the latest format
from being read was fixed.
2. Only non-ponded surface area is saved for use in the dynamic
wave surcharge algorithm (when water depth is close to the
node's crown elevation).
1. Creation of auxilary forms on startup was moved from the
main form's OnActivate event to its OnCreate event, while
creation of the map form was moved tothe OnShow event.
2. The routines for saving and reading the main form's position
and size in the swmm5 .ini file were modified.
3. A memory leak related to copying cells from the grid editor
used in various dialogs was fixed.
Build 5.1.001 (3/24/2014)
1. SWMM can now read the new file format for precipitation
data retrieved online from NOAA-NCDC.
2. A new choice of infiltration method, the Modified Horton
method, has been added. This method uses the cumulative
infiltration in excess of the minimum rate as its state
variable (instead of time along the Horton curve),
providing a more accurate infiltration estimate when
low rainfall intensities occur.
3. RDII interface files created internally by SWMM are now
saved in a binary format to reduce storage space. The ASCII
text format for these files is still supported for users
that find it desireable to create the files outside of SWMM.
4. Two new categories of LID controls, one for Green Roofs and
another for Rain Gardens, have been added so they no longer
have to be configured from the Bio-Retention Cell control
(although that option still remains). The Green Roof uses
a new Drainage Mat layer to store and convey the water that
percolates through the soil layer.
5. Users can now add their own groundwater outflow equation to
a subcatchment, to be used in place of or in addition to the
standard equation. Similar to treatment functions, the equation
can be any mathematical expression that uses the same ground-
water variables that appear in the standard equation.
6. Evaporation of water from open channels has been added.
7. A new conduit property named Seepage Rate (in/hr or mm/hr)
has been added to model uniform seepage along the bottom
and sloped sides of a conduit.
8. Infiltration from storage units is now referred to as
seepage, to be consistent with seepage from conduits. The
only required parameter is a seepage rate (in/hr or mm/hr).
Previous data files that supply a set of Green-Ampt
infiltration parameters will still be recognized.
9. Separate accounting and reporting of evaporation and
seepage losses in storage units is now made.
10. Open rectangular channels now have a new parameter that
specifies if one or both side wall surfaces should be
ignored when computing a hydraulic radius (to provide
improved support for quasi-2D modeling of wide channels
and overland flooding).
11. New Dynamic Wave Analysis options have been added for
the maximum number of iterations and head tolerance used
at each time step. The percentage of time steps where
convergence is not achieved is also now reported.
12. Users can now set the flow tolerances that determine if
flow routing calculations can be skipped because steady
state conditions hold.
13. Control rules can now use a conduit's OPEN/CLOSED status
in both premise conditions and action clauses.
14. The meaning of the link view variable "Capacity" has been
changed. For conduits it is now the fraction of the full
cross section area filled by the flow, while it is the
control setting for all other types of links (the meaning
of the control setting varies by link type -- see the Help
file or the Users Manual).
15. The link Froude number view variable has been replaced with
the link's flow volume, the subcatchment Losses variable has
been replaced by two new variables - Evaporation and
Infiltration, and upper groundwater zone Soil Moisture has
been added as a new view variable.
16. The Node Inflows Summary table of the Status Report now
includes a new column that lists the mass balance error
in volume units for each node.
17. A new summary table, Link Pollutant Load, has been added
that displays the total mass load of each pollutant that
flows through each link.
18. Using a Drain Delay time of 0 for Rain Barrel LIDs now means
that the barrel is allowed to drain continuously, even as it
is filling during wet weather periods.
19. The requirement that an impervious surface must be dry
(have no more than 0.05 inches of standing water) before
it could be subjected to street sweeping has been dropped.
20. After runoff ceases and a land surface goes dry due to
evaporation, any remaining mass of pollutant originating
from direct deposition or upstream runon is assumed to be
unavailabe for future washoff (it shows up as Remaining
Buildup in the mass balance report).
21. The way that wet weather washoff inflow loads are
interpolated across a flow routing time step was modified
to produce a better match between the reported total runoff
load and total quality routing inflow load.
22. The method used to select a time step for processing RDII
unit hydrographs was modified to consider the case where
K (the ratio of rising limb to falling limb duration) is
23. When the moisture content of the upper groundwater zone
reaches saturation, the depth of the lower saturated zone
is now set equal to the full aquifer depth (minus a small
24. Conduits with negative slopes whose absolute value is
below the Minimum Slope option will have their slope
changed to the positive minimum value, thus allowing
them to be analyzed using the Steady Flow and Kinematic
Wave routing options.
25. The Avg. Froude Number and Avg. Flow Change columns in the
Flow Classification Summary table have been replaced with the
fraction of time steps that flow is limited to normal flow
and the fraction of time steps that flow is inlet controlled
26. An error condition now occurs if a pump's startup depth
is less than its shutoff depth.
27. Only the upstream node for orifice and weir links is now
checked to see if its maximum depth needs to be increased
to meet the top elevation of the orifice or weir opening.
28. Weirs are no longer allowed to operate as an orifice when
they surcharge. Instead any excess flow will flood the
29. A warning message is now written to the Status Report if
the crest elevation of a regulator link is below its
downstream node's invert.
30. When a reporting time falls in between a computational time
step during which a pump's on/off status changes, the reported
pump flow is the value at either the start or end of the time
step depending on which is closer to the reporting time (i.e.,
no interpolation is used).
31. Control rule conditions can now accept elapsed time or
time of day values as decimal hours in addition to hours:
32. The test for a control rule condition equaling a specified
elapsed time or time of day was modified to more accurately
capture its occurrence.
33. If the Water Quality analysis option is disabled then the
binary results file no longer contains any pollutant values
(of 0) for all time periods.
34. Hot Start files now contain the complete state of the watershed
and conveyance system, so that future simulations can start up
correctly where they left off.
35. The following changes to error reporting were made:
- Error 319 was re-numbered to 320 and a new Error 319
was added for a rainfall data file with unknown format.
- Format errors in external time series files are now
listed as Error 363 (invalid data) instead of Error
173 (time series out of sequence).
36. Warning messages written to the Status Report are now
single spaced instead of double spaced. See report.c.
37. The Link Summary table in the Status Report now lists conduits
with negative slopes in their original orientation instead of
in their reversed state.
38. A refactoring bug from 5.0.022 that prevented snowmelt
from infiltrating has been fixed.
39. Snowmelt rate during rainfall conditions and the updating
of the antecedent temperature index were were not being
converted from the six hour time interval used in Anderson's
original NWS snowmelt model to the hourly basis used in SWMM.
40. A refactoring bug that failed to set the maximum number of
characters high enough for a line read from a user-prepared
rainfall data file has been fixed.
41. The optional Maximum Volume parameter for Horton
infiltration was not allowing any recovery of infiltration
capacity between storm events.
42. Evaporation from the lower groundwater zone was being
computed from the rate remaining after surface and upper
zone evaporation was considered instead of from the
unadjusted rate (with a reduction afterwards if it exceeds
the remaining available rate).
43. An error in applying the Vegetation Volume Fraction parameter
to swales was corrected.
44. The time from the last rainfall used to determine when a
Rain Barrel should begin to empty wasn't being computed
45. An erroneous error message for Rain Barrel LIDs with a
zero Void Ratio has been fixed (the Void Ratio parameter
should be ignored for Rain Barrels).
46. The display of extraneous infiltration results in detailed
reports for Rain Barrel LIDs has been eliminated.
47. The check on no street sweeping for a subcatchment during
wet periods was checking rainfall over the entire study
area instead of just the subcatchment.
48. An erroneous warning message regarding negative offsets for
pumps when elevation offsets are used has been eliminated.
49. A possible divide by zero error for trapezoidal channels
with zero bottom width has been eliminated.
50. A program crash that occurred when the Ignore Routing
option was selected and results were to be saved to a
Routing Interface file has been fixed.
51. Projects that had no subcatchments or had the Ignore
Runoff switch selected were not able to evaporate water
from storage units.
52. Weekday and weekend hourly time patterns for Dry Weather
inflows are now correctly applied in a mutually exclusive
53. The Node Flooding Summary table in the Status Report now
correctly lists the peak depth of ponded water above the
node's maximum depth (i.e., its rim or ground elevation)
instead of above its invert elevation.
54. Occasional problems caused by the date/time functions not
returning an hour between 0 and 23 (for hourly time patterns)
and being off by 1 second (when writing results to outflow
interface files) have been fixed.
55. A bug introduced in release 5.0.017 that caused the
concentration after first-order decay in a storage node to
be ignored has been fixed.
56. A bug in the Total Elapsed Time listed at the end of the
Status Report for runs taking longer than 24 hours of
computer time was fixed.
57. A correction was made for the slope correction factor used
for mitered culvert inlets.
58. The procedure for finding the surface area of a storage unit
given its volume was corrected for the case where the
storage curve has a section of decreasing area with depth.
59. The procedure for finding a cross-section area given a
section factor value was corrected for the case where the
section factor table does not have its highest value as
the last entry in the table.
60. An error in computing the hydraulic radius of the Rectangular-
Triangular conduit shape as a function of flow depth was
1. The entire GUI code was ported from Delphi 7 into Delphi XE2.
2. Different color themes for the user interface can be
selected from the Program Preferences dialog.
3. The "Data" Browser panel is now named as the "Project"
4. The Object Toolbar has been eliminated. Visual objects
are now added to the map in the same manner as non-visual
objects -- by selecting their category from the Project
Browser and then clicking the Browser's "+" button (or
by selecting Project | Add... on the main menu).
5. The LID Control and LID Usage editors were re-designed to
accomodate the new LID control options.
6. Modifications were made to accept the new engine features
mentioned above (modified Horton infiltration, seepage rate
parameter for conduits, side wall option for rectangular
channels, and the additional Dynamic Wave routing options).
7. Modifications were made to accept the updated set of output
8. The summary results tables that used to appear as part of the
Status Report have been moved into a separate Summary Report
that makes it easier to view and sort them.
9. The Time Series Plot selection dialog was modified to allow
more than one kind of object/variable pair to be plotted.
10. The Graph Options dialog was modified to allow a vertical
axis to be inverted (as when plotting an inverted rainfall
hyetograph on the same graph as a runoff hydrograph).
11. The option to compute evaporation using the Hargreaves
equation wasn't being saved along with the rest of a project.
12. If pollutants are defined for a project but the Water Quality
analysis option is not selected, then after a new analysis is
made pollutants will no longer be listed as theme variables in
the Map Browser nor will they be available for graphs, tables
or statistical reports.
13. The columns for the [XSECTIONS] section of a saved project
file now includes a heading label for "Culvert Code".
SWMM 5.0 Update History
Build 5.0.022 (04/21/11)
1. The following fixes and updates were made to the LID
module of the code (lid.c):
a. The Drain Delay time for a Rain Barrel LID is now
correctly converted internally from hours to seconds.
b. The meaning of the Conductivity property of an LID's
Storage layer has been changed. It is now defined as
the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the native soil
below the layer instead of the conductivity of the layer
c. Storage layers are now optional for Bio-Retention Cells
and Permeable Pavement LIDs by allowing the layer height
to be zero. One should still enter a non-zero conductivity
for the layer if infiltration into native soil is allowed.
d. If the top width of the overland flow surface for an LID
is zero then any excess water above the surface storage
depth simply spills out instantaneously.
e. The calculation of infiltration in a Vegetative Swale
was corrected so that a swale with vertical sides will
produce the same results as a fully pervious subcatchment
with the same dimensions, roughness, and slope.
f. The water initially stored in all LID units is now reported
in the Status Report's Runoff Continuity table.
g. Error messages are now generated if the surface layer
vegetation volume fraction is less than 1, if the area of
all LIDs in a subcatchment is greater than the total area
or if the total capture area of all LIDs is greater than
the subcatchment's total impervious area.
2. Missing values for accumulation periods within an NWS rain
file are now processed correctly. See rain.c.
3. A new error message (318) is now generated if a user-prepared
rainfall file has its dates out of sequence. See rain.c, err.h,
4. Evaporation during wet time periods was including rainfall and
run-on as moisture available for evaporation when it should
only be the current ponded depth. See subcatch.c.
5. Curve Number infiltration was modified to use only direct
precipitation, not including runon or internally routed flow,
to compute an infiltration rate. See infil.h, infil.c,
subcatch.c and lid.c.
6. A new error message (110) is now generated if the ground
elevation of a subcatchment is less than the initial water
table elevation of its groundwater aquifer. See gwater.c,
err.h, and err.c.
7. A check was added to the tailwater term of the groundwater flow
equation to insure that the term is zero when no tailwater depth
exists. See gwater.c.
8. Checks were added to the solution of the governing groundwater
mass balance equations to catch conditions where the lower zone
depth is greater than the total depth or when the upper zone
moisture content is greater than the porosity. See gwater.c.
9. A divide by zero error no longer occurs when computing the
hydraulic radius of an empty Filled Circular pipe whose filled
depth is zero. A similar error for the hydraulic radius of an
empty trapezoidal channel whose bottom width was zero was also
eliminated. See xsect.c.
10. The critical or normal depth adjustment made for a conduit is
no longer allowed to set the depth to zero -- some small depth
level is always maintained. See dynwave.c.
11. The Pump Summary Report was expanded to include number of start-
ups, minimum flow, and time off both the low and high ends of
the pump curve. See objects.h, link.c, stats.c, and statsrpt.c.
12. When the setting of an orifice or weir was changed to 0 (to
completely block flow) the flow depth in the element wasn't
being set to 0. This was only a reporting error and had no
effect on the flow routing calculations. See link.c.
13. The Node Surcharge Summary in the Status Report did not report
a ponded node as being surcharged. This was only a reporting
error and had no effect on the flow routing calculations. See
1. A new map view variable for subcatchments, the percent of area
occupied by LID controls, was added. This view allows one to
easily distinguish which subcatchments have been assigned LIDs
and which haven't.
2. The LID Control Editor now checks to see that data fields that
require fractions (such as vegetative volume, void volumes,
soil porosity, etc.) contain valid entries.
3. The LID Group Editor now checks that the total area of all LIDs
assigned to a subcatchment does not exceed the area of the
subcatchment and that the total percentage of impervious area
treated by these LIDs does not exceed 100.
4. Comments applied to Time Patterns are no longer lost when a
project is saved and re-opened at a later time.
5. The File | Export | Hostart option now saves the current
groundwater state correctly.
Build 5.0.021 (09/30/10)
1. A code refactoring error in build 5.0.019 that resulted in no
recovery of infiltration capacity during dry periods has been fixed.
2. The pervious area adjustment used in 5.0.019 for evaporation and
infiltration to a subcatchment's groundwater zone was corrected.
3. The accounting of evaporation loss from just the pervious area of a
subcatchment has been corrected. See subcatch.c.
4. The rainfall + runon used to compute infiltration is no longer
pre-adjusted by subtracting any evaporation loss. See subcatch.c.
5. The rate for Green-Ampt infiltration is no longer allowed to be
less than the smaller of the saturated hydraulic conductivity and
the available surface moisture. See infil.c.
6. The available surface moisture for Green-Ampt infiltration is
considered 0 if its value is less than a small tolerance. See
7. Evaporation and infiltration losses from Storage nodes under
Kinematic Wave and Steady Flow routing are now accounted for
properly. See flowrout.c.
8. The Pollutant Loading summary tables in the Status Report now
lists results for all pollutants in a single table instead of
listing just 5 pollutants per table. See report.c.
1. The anchoring of the components on either side of the splitter
bar on the Data Browser panel was changed to insure that the
main window is displayed correctly when SWMM is first launched.
2. The incorrect display of link slopes on the study area map under
the Elevation Offsets option was corrected.
Build 5.0.020 (08/23/10)
1. A refactoring bug that prevented SWMM from reading rainfall data
from external rainfall files was fixed. See gage.c.
Build 5.0.019 (07/30/10)
1. The ability to explicitly model five different types of Low Impact
Development (LID) practices at the subcatchment level has been
added. Consult the LID Controls topic in the Help file for details.
See lid.c, lid.h, infil.c, infil.h, input.c, inputrpt.c, project.c,
statsrpt.c, and subcatch.c.
2. Pollutant buildup over a given landuse can now be specified by a time
series instead of just a buildup function. Consult the Land Uses /
Buildup topic in the Help index for more details. See landuse.c and
3. An option was added to allow evaporation of standing water to occur
only during periods with no precipitation (the default is the current
practice of allowing evaporation in both wet and dry periods). See
climate.c, enums.h, keywords.c, objects.h, project.c, subcatch.c,
4. Storage node losses from evaporation and infiltration are now computed
directly within the flow routing routines to produce better
conservation of mass. See objects.h, routing.c, dynwave.c and node.c.
5. The check to see if flow in a link should not exceed the normal flow
now uses just the upstream Froude number rather than both up and
downstream numbers. See dynwave.c.
6. The maximum trials used when evaluating the flow and head equations at
a given time period for dynamic wave routing was increased from 4 to 8.
7. The Ponding calculation for dynamic wave flow routing was changed once
again to obtain better continuity results. The depth in a surcharged
node that can pond is not allowed to rise higher than just beyond full
depth in any single time step. After that, its change in depth is
determined by the node's ponded area. Similarly, the depth of a ponded
node is not allowed to drop more than just below full depth in any
single time step. See dynwave.c and node.c.
8. For Kinematic Wave and Steady Flow routing, a node's ponded area is
no longer used to infer a ponded depth when a node floods with Ponding
turned on. Instead, the water depth is simply set to the node's maximum
depth and the ponded area parameter is simply used as a indicator as
to whether the node can pond or not. (This differs from dynamic wave
routing where the ponded area directly influences ponded depth through
the solution of the momentum and flow conservation equations.) See
9. As a consequence of the preceeding update, the Node Flooding Summary
table in the Status Report no longer displays the maximum ponded volume
in acre-inches (or hectare-mm). Instead it displays the maximum ponded
depth (ft or m) for Dynamic Wave flow routing or the maximum ponded
volume (1000 ft3 or 1000 m3) for other forms of routing. See stats.c
10. The groundwater mass balance equations were returned to the form they
had in release 5.0.013 since they were not correctly accounting for
the water volume transferred between the saturated and unsaturated
zones due only to a change in the water table depth. See gwater.c.
11. Controls based on flow rates now properly account for the direction of
flow when they are evaluated. This may require users to add an extra
condition clause to a rule that only applies for flow in the positive
direction (e.g., AND Link XXX FLOW >= 0.0). See controls.c.
12. The Villemonte correction for downstream submergence is now also used
for partly filled orifices (instead of just for weirs). See link.c and
13. A missing term in the equation used to check for submerged inlet
control for Culvert conduits was fixed. See culvert.c.
14. If a non-conduit link is connected to a storage node then its
contribution to the node's surface area is now ignored. See
15. The automatic adjustment of the maximum depth of a link's end nodes
to be at least as high as the link's crown no longer applies when
the link is a bottom orifice. See link.c.
16. A fatal error message is now generated if a conduit's entrance,
exit, or average loss coefficient value is negative. See link.c.
17. Requests to do internal routing of runoff between impervious and
pervious sub-areas of a subcatchment when only one type of sub-area
exists are now ignored. See subcatch.c.
18. The check on the error condition of a node having both incoming and
outgoing dummy conduits was modified so as not to get fooled by
Outlet-type links. See toposort.c.
19. The Ignore Snowmelt switch is now internally set to true whenever
there are no snow pack objects defined, so that precipitation is not
mistakenly converted to snow for a project with temperature data.
See gage.c and project.c.
20. When reading min/max daily temperatures from a climate file, the
values are now swapped if the minimum is greater than the maximum.
21. When the Hargreaves method is used to compute an evaporation rate
from daily temperature values, negative rates are no longer allowed.
22. Several bugs that prevented SWMM from detecting and reading Canadian
DLY02/04 climate files correctly were fixed. See climate.c.
23. An error message is now generated if a time series used for rainfall
is also used for another purpose in a project (since it will cause
the two uses to be out of synch). See error.h, error.c, gage.c,
climate.c, control.c, and inflow.c.
24. An error message is now generated if two Rain Gages with files as
their data source use the same Station IDs but different names for
the data file. See rain.c, error.h, and error.c.
25. When zero rainfall values appear in a rain file or time series they
are now skipped over and treated as a dry period, the same as would
occur had they not been entered in the first place. See gage.c.
26. A bug that caused the data in an evaporation time series to be out
of synch with the simulation time clock has been fixed. This only
affected evaporation data supplied from time series and not monthly
average data or data from climate files. See climate.c.
27. The water quality mass balance now correctly accounts for any initial
mass in the system created by using a hot start file. See massbal.c.
28. For models that only compute runoff and have a reporting time step
less than the wet time step, the latter is internally set equal to
the former. See swmm5.c.
1. The Data Browser was updated to include the newly added Low Impact
Development (LID) objects and new dialog forms were added to specify
LID design data and their placement within a project's subcatchments.
2. You can now open a project input file by dragging it from Windows
Explorer (or the Desktop) and dropping it anywhere in SWMM's main
3. A new checkbox was added to the Evaporation page of the Climatology
Editor to include the option to evaporate only in dry periods.
4. The choices for Function type on the Buildup page of the Land Use
Editor were extended to include an external time series (EXT).
5. SWMM will now continue to use the period (".") as the decimal
separator even if the user or the system changes the Windows Regional
Settings while the program is running.
6. A new installer program is now used that places the example data sets
in the user's My Documents\EPA SWMM Projects folder.
7. The components below the horizonal splitter bar on the Data Browser
panel were placed in their own panel component so that the splitter
would work correctly under Windows 7.
Build 5.0.018 (11/18/09)
1. Reporting of the total infiltration + evaporation loss for each
Storage Unit (as a percent of total inflow to the unit) was added
to the Storage Volume Summary table in the Status Report. See
objects.h, node.c, stats.c, and statsrpt.c.
2. Double counting the final stored volume when finding the nodes with
the highest mass balance errors has been eliminated. See stats.c.
3. A warning message was added for when a Rain Gage's recording
interval is less than the smallest time interval appearing in its
associated rainfall time series. (An error message is issued if
the recording interval is greater than the smallest time series
interval.) See gage.c and text.h.
4. Hot Start interface files now contain the final state of each
subcatchment's groundwater zone in addition to the node and
link information they have always had. See routing.c.
5. To avoid confusion, the actual conduit slope is now listed in the
Link Summary table of the Status Report rather than the adjusted
slope that results from any conduit lengthening. See link.c and
6. The Status Report now displays only those summary tables for
which results have been obtained (e.g., if the Flow Routing
option is turned off, then no node or link tables are displayed).
See massbal.c and statsrpt.c.
7. Some code re-factoring was done to place rain gage validation
and initialization in separate functions. See project.c, gage.c,
8. The engine version number was updated to 50018 (this update had
been overlooked since release 5.0.010). See consts.h.
1. A bug that prevented Status Report files from being deleted from
a users TEMP folder when they were no longer in use was corrected.
Users should check their TEMP folders (usually in
c:\Documents and Settings\<User Name>\Local Settings\Temp)
for old files that begin with "swm". These can safely be deleted.
2. The project input file created for use by SWMM's Add-On Tools now
contains all project data, including map coordinates and element
Build 5.0.017 (10/7/09)
1. The Ponding routine for dynamic wave flow routing was once
again modified, this time to account for the special case
where a node transitions between surcharged and ponded
conditions within a single time step. This should correct
the large continuity errors experienced with ponding under
release 5.0.016. See dynwave.c.
2. Error 112 (a conduit's elevation drop exceeds its length)
is now treated as a Warning condition and not a fatal error.
In this case the conduit's slope is computed as in earlier
versions of SWMM (elevation drop / length) instead of using
the more rigorous right-triangle method of HEC-RAS. See
link.c and text.h.
3. Inflow interface files no longer have to contain data for
all of the same pollutants defined in the current project
(e.g., they can contain just flows or some subset of the
pollutants). See iface.c.
4. Instead of using the rain gage's recording interval as the
time step for processing a set of RDII unit hydrographs, the
smaller of the wet runoff time step and the time to peak of
the shortest unit hydrograph in the set is now used. As a
result, it is now permissible to use hydrographs whose time
to peak is shorter than the rain gage recording interval.
5. Under Curve Number infiltration, infiltration now stops when
the maximum capacity (initially equal to 1000/CN - 10 inches)
is completely used up. See infil.c.
6. The small tolerance used to determine how much ponded depth
in excess of depression storage is needed to initiate runoff
was removed. This produces a smoother runoff response for
some data sets. See subcatch.c.
7. A default concentration for dry weather flow has been added
to the Pollutant object. It can be overriden for any specific
node by editing the node's Inflows property. See landuse.c,
routing.c, and objects.h.
8. For water quality routing, the simplified analytical
solution to the CSTR mixing equation was replaced with a
more robust finite difference approximation. This seems
to avoid numerical problems with high decay rates. See
9. First order decay was not being applied to pollutants
transported through conduits under Steady Flow routing. To
do this correctly required writing a special water quality
routine just for Steady Flow routing. See qualrout.c.
10. A small minimum depth tolerance was introduced for treatment
to occur at nodes and to have non-zero concentrations in
conduits. See qualrout.c.
11. Large water quality mass balance errors in systems that
provide treatment at nodes were eliminated by correctly
accounting for both the inflow mass and mass in storage
when computing the mass lost to treatment. See treatmnt.c.
1. The property editor for Pollutant objects was modified to
accommodate the new default dry weather flow concentration
2. The default dry weather runoff time step was reduced from
15 to 5 minutes and the default total duration was changed
from 0 to 6 hours.
3. The Ruler tool now displays a small square where the user
begins their measurement so that its easier to create a
closed polygon when measuring an area.
Build 5.0.016 (6/22/09)
1. A new option was added to compute daily evaporation from the
daily temperature values contained in a climate file using
Hargreaves' method. (See climate.c, enums.h, keywords.h, and
2. When the Ponding option is turned on, nodes that can pond are no
longer always treated like storage nodes that never surcharge.
Now they are only treated this way after ponding occurs. Otherwise
they behave like a normal node. (See dynwave.c).
3. The small tolerance used to decide when a storage node was full or
not has been removed since for very small time steps it could cause
a currently full storage unit to remain full even if there was some
small net outflow from it. (See node.c).
4. Spurious warnings for negative elevation offsets no longer appear
when the "*" entry is used for the offset value or when the offset
elevation value is within a small tolerance of the node invert
elevation. (See link.c).
5. When the water level at a storage node exceeds the highest level
supplied in its Storage Curve, an extrapolated surface area from
the curve is now used only if the curve is sloping outward (i.e.,
surface area is increasing with depth at the top of the curve). If
instead it slopes inward then the last surface area entry in the
curve is used. (See table .c).
6. Comma delimited NCDC rainfall files, both with and without station
name, can now be recognized and read correctly by SWMM. (See rain.c).
7. Space delimited NCDC rainfall files with empty spaces in the condition
code fields can now be read correctly. (See rain.c).
8. A bug created in release 5.0.015 that caused incorrect RDII inflows
to be computed when the rain gage recording interval was less than
the runoff wet time step has been fixed. (See rdii.c).
9. A new error check was added to detect if the time base of an RDII
unit hydrograph is less than its rain gage recording interval.
1. The Evaporation page of the Climate Editor was modified to accommodate
the new option for computing evaporation from daily temperatures.
2. Evaporation Rate has been added to the list of System variables that
can be viewed in time series plots and tables.
3. The term "Shape Curve" was replaced by "Storage Curve" in the Storage
Unit Property Editor to remove any confusion with the Shape Curve used
to define custom closed cross-section shapes.
Build 5.0.015 (4/10/09)
1. Storage unit nodes have a new optional property named Infiltration
that can store Green-Ampt infiltration parameters for the unit and
thus allow it to serve as an infiltration basin. The Green-Ampt
infiltration model was modified to explicitly include the effect
of ponded water depth on infiltration rate. (See infil.c,
massbal.c, node.c, and objects.h).
2. Different sets of Initial Abstraction parameters (maximum depth,
initial depth, and recovery rate) can now be specified for each
of the three unit hydrographs (short term, medium term, and long
term) that comprise an RDII Unit Hydrograph group (see keywords.h,
keywords.c, objects.h, rdii.c, and text.h).
3. A Meander Modifier was added to a Transect's parameters. It is the
ratio of the length of a meandering main channel to the length of
the overbank area that surrounds it. This modifier is applied to
all conduits that use this particular transect for their cross
section. It assumes that the length supplied for these conduits is
that of the longer main channel. SWMM will use the shorter overbank
length in its calculations while internally increasing the main
channel roughness to account for its longer length. (See dynwave.c,
flowrout.c, link.c, objects.h, and transect.c).
4. NWS files in space delimited TD 3240 or 3260 format that include a
station name field have been added to the types of rainfall files
that are automatically recognized by SWMM (see rain.c).
5. The 2 GB binary output file size limit for runs made under the GUI
that was inadvertently added into release 5.0.014 was removed
6. Any backflow that flows into an outfall node due to the head
condition at the node is now correctly reported as part of the
node's Total Inflow result (see node.c).
7. A fatal error is now generated if the smallest time interval between
values in a rainfall time series does not match the recording time
interval specified for the associated rain gage object (instead of
internally adjusting the gage interval and issuing a warning message)
(see error.c, error.h, and gage.c).
8. The normal flow limitation for dynamic wave flow routing based on
the Froude number now requires that the latter be greater or equal
to 1.0 for both the upstream and downstream flow depths rather just
for either of these (see dynwave.c).
9. A reporting error for the overflow rate into the ponded volume for
a node that floods under dynamic wave flow routing was corrected
10. The practice of not allowing a computed top surface width to be less
than the width at 4% of the full conduit depth for dynamic wave flow
routing has been dropped in favor of using the actual width, no matter
how small (see dynwave.c).
1. Data entry forms were modified to support the new modeling features
described in the Engine Updates items (1) - (3).
2. A problem with the way that conduits with elevation offsets were
displayed in profile plots drawn prior to a run was corrected.
Build 5.0.014 (1/21/09)
Rain Gages (gage.c, table.c, error.c, error.h, and objects.h)
1. The recording interval for a rain gage is now automatically adjusted
to be no greater than the smallest time interval for the gage's time
series data (with a warning message written to the Status Report).
2. When two or more rain gages reference the same time series data, a
fatal error message is now generated if the Rainfall Formats
(intensity, volume, or cumulative volume) for the gages are not all
3. The Green-Ampt infiltration rate was corrected for the case when
the surface becomes saturated part way through the current time step.
4. The saturated hydraulic conductivity is no longer needed by the
Curve Number method to compute a regeneration rate for infiltration
capacity. The latter is now set simply to the reciprocal of the user
supplied drying time. Thus the CN method now requires only two param-
eters (the CN and the drying time).
5. An optional monthly adjustment pattern can now be used to modify the
recovery rate of infiltration capacity by month of year. The name of
this pattern is specified as part of the Evaporation data. See the
Help file or the Users Manual for details. (This also affects files
climate.c, keywords.c, project.c, enums.h, objects.h, and text.h).
Flow Routing (flowrout.c, node.c, inflow.c, link.c, and objects.h)
6. A new Minimum Slope option has been added. When this option is non-
zero a computed conduit slope is not allowed to be below this value.
The default is 0. (Note: the slope of a conduit whose elevation
difference is below 0.001 ft is first computed using this elevation
difference and then is compared to the Minimum Slope value.) (The
following files were also changed for this feature: keywords.c,
project.c, enums.h, globals.h, text.h).
7. An optional Baseline Time Pattern was added for external inflows at
nodes. It can be used to apply a periodic adjustment to the baseline
inflow value by month of year, day of week, etc. See the Help file or
the Users Manual for more details.
8. Specific conduits can now be designated as Culverts and have Inlet
Control flow computed for them under Dynamic Wave flow routing.
9. The rating curve used to determine flow through an Outlet can now be
based on either the freeboard depth above the outlet bottom (as
before) or on the head difference between the upstream and downstream
10. The calculation of the maximum outflow that a node can release over
a time step should be based on the initial volume, not the final
volume, at the node.
11. A problem with the program not accepting an ideal pump when the
connecting upstream conduit had an adverse slope was fixed.
12. The formula used to compute conduit slope was modified to match that
used by HEC-RAS.
13. A problem with the program crashing when the No Routing option was
selected in combination with the Save Outflows Interface File option
was fixed (see output.c).
14. Under Steady Flow and Kinematic Wave routing one can now use a Dummy
conduit that connects to a node at higher elevation without having
to specify an inlet offset.
Dynamic Wave Flow Routing (dynwave.c, link.c, and node.c)
15. Under-relaxation of flows for pumps between iterations of the
governing equations is no longer used since it can produce a
solution that does not conform to the pump's operating curve.
16. Instead of the average area, the upstream weighted area that
accounts for near-supercritical flow is now used in the dQ/dH
term for conduits.
17. The upstream/downstream Froude numbers used to check for normal
flow are now computed using hydraulic depth rather than flow depth.
18. When ponding is allowed, ponded volume is now computed from the
computed nodal depth rather than adjusting the depth to accommodate
the ponded volume based on the excess of inflow versus outflow. This
is a return to the original method that was used up until Release
5.0.010 and makes ponding (which is actually a form of storage)
consistent with the way that storage nodes are normally treated.
19. The volume at the inlet node of Type I pumps (where an implicit
wet well is assumed to occur) is now determined on the basis of
computed depth, just as with storage nodes, rather than computing
depth from the change in volume.
20. The possible closing of tide gates on outfalls directly connected
to orifice, weir, or outlet links is now correctly accounted for.
Conduit Cross-Sections (xsect.c)
21. The modified baskethandle (MODBASKETHANDLE) cross-section shape
was extended to allow the circular top to have any desired radius
equal or greater than half the section's width. It thus becomes
an upside down version of the Rectangular-Round shape. The section
geometry functions for both shapes received extensive revision.
Control Rules (controls.c)
22. "SIMULATION MONTH" and "SIMULATION DAY" (meaning month of the year
and day of the week, respectively) have been added to the types of
time conditions that can be used in a control rule condition clause.
Pollutant Buildup/Washoff (subcatch.c, landuse.c, and consts.h)
23. Washoff of a user-specified initial buildup when there is no buildup
function specified now works correctly.
24. The way that concentrations in runoff are combined with those
from runon and direct rainfall was modified so as to produce more
consistent results, especially when a BMP removal value is appled.
Water Quality Routing (qualrout.c, routing.c, treatmnt.c)
25. For storage units, the finite difference form of the mass balance
equation was replaced with the analytical CSTR solution.
26. An inflow rate adjustment was added when routing quality through
conduits under Dynamic Wave flow routing to help lower the mass
27. The formula for updating the hydraulic residence time (HRT) in a
storage node was revised.
28. Quality routing under Steady Flow routing is now treated as a
special case where the concentration within a conduit simply equals
that of the upstream node.
29. Any reverse flow into the system that occurs at an Outfall node is
now treated as an external inflow with respect to water quality and
will therefore contain whatever pollutant concentration was specified
for external inflows at the node even if no external flow inflow was
defined. This feature can be used to model saltwater or contaminant
intrusion in tidally influenced channels.
30. The mass balance equations were re-formulated in a simpler fashion.
31. The flow equation was re-expressed in terms of distances above the
aquifer bottom instead of absolute elevations.
32. The equation for computing the maximum infiltration rate that the
upper zone can accept was corrected.
33. Snow removal for a subcatchment now works by removing snow once the
"Depth at which removal begins" is reached. The fraction of this
amount that remains on the surface is whatever is left over after
all of the redistribution options are satisfied.
34. The "Depth at which removal begins" value is now correctly converted
to internal units of feet.
35. A problem with no RDII being produced when two or more RDII unit
hydrographs utilized the same rain gage was fixed.
Time Series (table.c, error.c, error.h, objects.h)
36. Time Series data can now be imported from an external file instead
of having to be listed in the project's input file. See the Users
Manual or the Help file for details.
37. A user can now choose to ignore any combination of the following
process models when running a simulation: Rainfall/Runoff, Snowmelt,
Groundwater, Flow Routing and Water Quality (swmm5.c, project.c,
runoff.c, subcatch.c, routing.c, keywords.c, keywords.h, text.h,
Status Report (statsrpt.c)
38. The heading for the maximum flow column in the Link Flow Summary table
was changed to "|Flow|" to show that the flows listed are absolute
39. The labels "Mgal" and "Mltrs" were replaced with "10^6 gal" and
"10^6 ltr", respectively.
40. The widths for the various types of flow volume fields (e.g., runoff
volume, node inflow volume, etc.) were increased in size.
Binary Output File (output.c)
41. The Report Start Time written to the binary results is now
adjusted to be be one reporting period prior to when the first
result is reported so that the GUI uses the correct date when it
Output Report (command line version) (report.c)
42. Time series tables for reported subcatchments now report Snow Depth,
Groundwater Elevation, and Groundwater Flow (provided that snowmelt
and groundwater processes are included in the simulation).
1. Support was added for the following new engine features:
a. minimum conduit slope option
b. culvert designation for specific conduits
c. monthly infiltration recovery Pattern
d. Baseline Time Pattern for external inflows
e. updated Modified Baskethandle cross-section shape
f. either depth-based or head-based Outlet rating curves
g. options to ignore selected process models
h. use of an external file as source of time series data.
2. Regarding 1h above, the Time Series Editor dialog was modified to
include the external data file option.
3. A new category of Simulation Options named Reporting has been
added. When this category is selected for editing in the Data
Browser, a Reporting Options dialog appears from which one can
limit the number of objects whose simulation results are saved
and can be reported. The default is to save results for all
4. The Group Editing feature was extended to include subcatchment
Snow Packs and Groundwater Flow parameters.
5. The Help -> Tutorial menu command now works correctly to launch the
newer HTML version of the SWMM5 Tutorial Help file.
6. The File -> Export -> Hotstart File command now converts metric
results to internal SWMM US units before saving them to the hotstart
7. Commas are no longer recognized as item separators when reading input
files since this was causing problems when a comma was used in the ID
name of an object (which is allowable).
8. The coordinates of the default natural areal depletion curve for snow
packs were changed to correspond to those appearing in the National
Weather Service publications on which SWMM's snow melt routines were
9. A problem with not loading a specified startup input file when
epaswmm5.exe is launched from the command line (or from an Explorer
shortcut) was fixed.
10. A problem with the simulation progress meter not displaying the correct
number of elapsed days during long-term simulations was fixed.
11. A problem with Profile Plots not being updated correctly when users
changed certain display options was corrected.
12. The following updates to the Profile Plot feature were made:
i. The selected links are now checked to make sure that they exist
and form a connected path.
ii. The vertical axis scaling can now be set from the Profile Plot
iii. The filled-in water level at junctions is now drawn only as high
as the maximum junction depth (i.e., the ground surface), even if
the HGL is higher.
13. A problem with copying just a single column of a Tabular Report to the
clipboard or to a file was corrected.
14. A problem with the selection buttons on the Time Series and Tablular
Report Selection dialog becoming stuck in the disabled mode was fixed.
15. If an external file (such as a rainfall climate, or interface file)
resides in the same directory as the project file then the directory
path portion of the file name is omitted when the file name is saved
within the project file. This will make it easier to share project
files with other users and computers.
16. The name of the "Rainfall" theme variable was changed to "Precipitation".
17. When the Auto-Backup program preference is selected, a backup file is now
created whenever the current project file is saved to disk, not just when
the project is first opened.
Build 5.0.013 (3/11/08)
1. The check on acceptable values for site latitude was
corrected (see climate.c).
2. The definition and implementation of the PID controller
was changed. See the Help file or the Users Manual for
details (see controls.c).
3. The following changes were made to the dynamic wave flow
routing routine in dynwave.c:
a. A new method that places more weight on upstream conduit
geometry as the Froude number approaches 1 was added.
b. A code re-factoring error that crept into the inertial
term of the momentum equation was corrected.
c. The flow in a fully flowing open channel can no longer be
greater than the full normal flow.
d. The Normal Flow Limit based on both slope and Froude number
was modified to simply implement the two criteria together
in the same fashion as they are done individually.
e. A check was added that prevents any flow out of a node that
f. The ponding computation was reverted back to that of 5.0.009
(depth is computed from volume rather than volume computed
from depth) to better maintain flow continuity.
g. Using the maximum allowable change in depth at a node as a
criterion for selecting a variable time step was restored.
4. The crown elevations of any connecting non-conduit links are
now considered when determining a node's crown elevation (see
5. The possibility that the initial setting of an orifice was not
being made correctly was eliminated (see link.c).
6. Error checks were added to test for invalid numbers in a hot
start file (see routing.c).
1. Checks were added to test for erroneous values in an INI file
that would prevent a graph from displaying properly.
Build 5.0.012 (2/4/08)
1. The summary results tables written to the Status Report file
have been updated and expanded. See the Users Manual for more
details. Code changes to support this were made to dynwave.c,
flowrout.c, funcs.h, inputrpt.c (a new module), keywords.c,
keywords.h, link.c, objects.h, output.c, report.c, stats.c,
statsrpt.c (a new module), and text.h.
2. Conduit offsets can now be specified as an absolute
elevation or, as before, a relative depth above the node
invert. The same is true for the bottom of orifices, weirs,
and outlets. The "Link Offsets" setting in the GUI and the
corresponding LINK_OFFSETS entry in the project's input file
determine which option, DEPTH or ELEVATION, is in effect.
(see project.c, link.c, keywords.c, keywords.h, globals.h,
3. A PID-type controller has been added to the types of
modulated control rules that are available. See the Help
file or the Users Manual for instructions on how to use
this feature (see controls.c and keywords.c).
4. In the simulation results, "flooding" is now considered to
occur whenever the water level exceeds the top of a node,
whether ponding occurs or not. Before, flooding was only
recorded when there was no ponding and node overflow was lost
from the system (see dynwave.c, flowrout.c, massbal.c, node.c,
stats.c, and statsrpt.c).
5. The point at which the time to drain the upper soil zone for
Green-Ampt infiltration is first calculated was moved from time
0 to the time when the first rainfall period occurs. This fixes
a problem where different runoff hydrographs were being produced
when a project's start date was shifted slightly (see infil.c).
6. The criteria used to determine when steady state flow
conditions exist were changed to more closely follow those
used in SWMM 4 (see routing.c and the Help File or Users
Manual for the Skip Steady Periods option).
7. The optional user-assigned maximum flow limit for conduits was
made operational for all flow routing options, not just Dynamic
Wave routing (see link.c).
8. SI unit conversion problems for both a pump's on/off depth
settings and its pump curve slope values were fixed (see link.c).
9. The possibility that ponding could occur at the inlet (wet well)
node for a Type I pump was added (see dynwave.c).
10. A mistake in the Hazen-WIlliams head loss formula for force
main conduits was corrected (see forcmain.c).
11. The minimum limit of 0.0001 on flow area and hydraulic radius
computed from flow depth during dynamic wave routing was removed
since flow depth is already limited by this amount (see dynwave.c).
12. The flow direction test added for checking UPSTREAM CRITICAL and
DOWNSTREAM CRITICAL flow conditions in dynamic wave flow routing
was removed to prevent solutions from becoming stuck (see
13. The use of a maximum allowable change in depth at a node as a
criterion for selecting a variable time step for dynamic wave
flow routing was dropped (see dynwave.c).
14. A more refined method for computing the flow across a bottom
orifice at low heads was implemented. (see link.c).
15. The head loss calculation caused by flap gates in weirs was
extended to orifices as well (see link.c).
16. The computation of depth as a function of area for a trapezoidal
channel was extended to consider the case where the user used
0 for the side slopes (making it a rectangular channel - a
holdover from SWMM 4) (see xsect.c).
17. A bug introduced in 5.0.010 that was preventing RDII from being
computed for unit hydrographs that used the same rain gage as
another unit hydrograph was fixed (see rdii.c and objects.h).
18. Pollutant loading from RDII was corrected to be based on the
pollutant's specified RDII quality rather than its rainfall
quality (see routing.c).
19. The "Snow Only" option for the buildup of a pollutant was never
actually implemented and has now been added (see subcatch.c).
20. Additional error checking for valid snow melt and snow pack
input parameters was added (see snow.c, error.c, and error.h).
21. The same runoff threshold is now used for both pollutant washoff
(when above the threshold) and buildup (when below the threshold)
to avoid non-zero runoff concentrations from being reported
during periods with negligible runoff (see subcatch.c).
22. The values for total system outflow and system flooding that are
saved to the binary results file at each reporting time step are
now set equal to the same values that are used for computing the
overall flow continuity error, thus avoiding inconsistent system
outflow values being generated for some data sets (see output.c).
23. For the command line version of SWMM, the default END_TIME option
was corrected from being 24 days to 0 days (i.e., midnight of the
END_DATE value) (see project.c and swmm5.c).
1. The Status Bar on the bottom of the main window was given a new look,
with drop down buttons added for changing the Link Offsets convention
and the project's flow units.
2. A combo-box was added to the Nodes/Links page of the Project Defaults
dialog to select the Link Offsets convention (in addition to the
button on the Status Bar).
3. The choice of Flow Units was removed from the General Options page
of the Simulations Options dialog and placed into a drop down button
on the main window's Status Bar. (As before, one can also set flow
units from the Nodes/Links page of the Project Defaults dialog.
4. A Bookmarks panel was added to the Status Report window to make it
easier to navigate between different sections within the report.
5. A new Measurement Tool button was added to the Map Toolbar that
allows one to measure the distance of a polyline or the area of a
polygon drawn directly on the study area map.
6. Storage Units were added to the choice of objects that can be
edited using the Group Editor dialog.
7. The length assumed for non-conduit objects displayed on a profile
plot was reduced from 100 ft to 10 ft.
8. A "View Conduits Only" option was added to the Profile Plot Options
dialog that makes the plot display just the water depth in the
conduits along the profile and not show the HGL and ground surface.
This allows one to get a better view of how full a conduit is.
9. The Project Data viewer (launched when Project | Details is selected)
can now be split into two views by selecting Window | Split from its
menu bar (or Window | Remove Split to remove the split view).
10. The number of decimal places set for each computed variable on the
Number Formats page of the Program Preferences dialog is now saved
between sessions as the other preferences are.
11. Current simulation results are now always saved between sessions
(if requested by the user) even if data were modified after the
last run was made. In this case, when the project is opened again,
the Run Status icon will show that results are available but need
12. If the user changes the display format of a Date/Time axis in the
Graph Options dialog and checks the Default box in the dialog, then
this format will be used for all future time series plots for the
13. A problem with the Profile Plot dialog not always identifying the
path of fewest links between two nodes when asked to do so was
14. Entries in the [REPORT] section of a project input file that were
used to define reporting options for the command line version of
SWMM 5 will no longer be lost when the project is run under the
GUI version of SWMM. The GUI version simply ignores them but adds
them into the project file whenever it is saved.
15. Conduit lengths and areas were always being re-computed after the
study area map's dimensions or distance units were changed with the
Map Dimensions dialog rather than only when the user selected the
re-compute option on the dialog.
16. The backdrop map now pans to the correct position when the Edit |
Find Object command is used to locate an object that is currently
not in view on the staudy area map.
17. The problem of having the name of a subcatchment's outlet node
or groundwater node be lost whenever that node was converted to
another type using the study area map's right-click popup menu
18. The Statistics Report analyzer was failing to include the last
event in its calculations for some data sets.
19. Additional input validation was added to the Snow Pack editor form.
Build 5.0.011 (7/16/07
1. A bug that prevented Weir and Outlet settings from being
updated after they were changed by control rules was fixed
2. The control setting for a Weir was not being accounted
for when computing an equivalent orifice coefficient for
surcharged flow or when computing flow through a V-notch
weir (see link.c).
3. The reported depth of flow through a Weir was not taking into
account the Weir's control setting (see link.c).
4. An update made in 5.0.010 to how ponded depths and volumes are
computed under dynamic wave flow routing was corrected (see
5. The equations used to mix the quality of runon, rainfall and
ponded water over a subcatchment were revised to prevent
numerical instability at very low volumes (see subcatch.c).
6. Missing values in NCDC rainfall files that use the 'M' flag
are now added to the total number of missing records reported
1. A bug introduced in release 5.0.010 that neglected to place
quotation marks around Map Labels and backdrop file names
(which can have spaces in them) when a project was saved to
file and which caused problems when the project was re-opened
has been fixed.
Build 5.0.010 (6/19/07)
1. All "float" variables were re-declared as "doubles"
(except for those variables written to binary interface
files) and the engine was re-compiled using the Microsoft
VC++ 2005 compiler.
2. A new NO ROUTING option was added which allows a run to
ignore any flow routing and only compute runoff (see
swmm5.c, keywords.c, stats.c, and enums.h).
3. A new type of pump, an Ideal Pump, was added which pumps at a
rate equal to the inflow to its inlet node and does not use a
pump curve (see enums.h, link.c, and flowrout.c).
4. A new type of conduit shape, a Custom Shape, was added which
allows users to define their own cross-sectional geometry for
closed conduits. To implement this feature, a new type of curve,
a Shape Curve, was added which records how the width of the
cross-section varies with height. (See keywords.c, link.c,
project.c, report.c, shape.c, xsect.c, enums.h, funcs.h,
globals.h, objects.h, and text.h).
5. Another new type of conduit shape, a Circular Force Main, was
added. It is a circular pipe that uses either the Hazen-Williams
or Darcy-Weisbach equations, instead of the Manning equation,
for pressurized flow only. The Hazen-Williams C-factor or the
Darcy-Weisbach roughness height is one of the shape's parameters.
The choice of which equation to use (for Force Mains only) is a
new global option. (See project.c, forcmain.c, dynwave.c,
keywords.c, link.c, xsect.c, enums.h, globals.h and text.h).
6. Pumps can now have startup and shutoff inlet node depths supplied
directly as part of a pump's properties rather than as part of a
control rule. (See link.c, routing.c, objects.h, and funcs.h).
7. Orifices can now have timed gate openings and closings as in
SWMM 4 (i.e., the SWMM 4 ORATE parameter). (See link.c and
8. Unit Hydrographs used for RDII inflows can now have an initial
abstraction loss associated with them. Consult the Users Manual
or the Help file for details. (See rdii.c and objects.h).
9. A new criterion was added to determine when a conduit has
supercritical flow and therefore normal flow conditions
might apply. It is based on both water surface slope and
the Froude number (as opposed to just one or the other).
(See dynwave.c, project.c, keywords.c, enums.h, and text.h).
10. A Flow Instability Index is now computed for each non-pump link.
It counts the number of time steps in which the link's flow is
either higher or lower than the flows at the previous and next
time steps. The Status Report lists the links with the five
highest indexes. (See objects.h, stats.c, and report.c).
11. Node volumes are now initialized to take account of any initial
ponding that may be implied by the node depth stored in a hot
start file (see flowrout.c).
12. The area corrections to the inlet and outlet loss terms under
dynamic wave flow routing that were introduced in Build 5.0.008
were removed (see dynwave.c).
13. To comply more closely with standard hydraulic practice, the
head across an orifice is now computed with respect to the
midpoint of its opening, rather than to the bottom. Also,
orifices are now treated the same as weirs in terms of not
contributing any surface area to their end nodes (see link.c
14. The partly opened setting for an orifice is now interpreted as
fraction of the full orifice opening height available rather
than as the fraction of the full area available. Also, the
equivalent discharge coefficient for a partly full orifice is
now re-computed whenever the setting of the orifice changes
15. In kinematic wave flow routing, when a conduit's inflow is
limited to its maximum normal flow, its corresponding inflow
area is now correctly normalized to the full flow area (see
16. For dynamic wave flow routing, the criteria used to check if
a node is not full before using its depth to compute a variable
time step was corrected to avoid excessively small time steps
17. The width v. depth table for circular shapes was expanded to 51
entries to match that of the other tables for this shape (see
18. The number of entries in the geometry tables for irregular
cross-sections was increased to 51 entries (see objects.h).
19. For Divider nodes, both end nodes of the diversion link are now
checked to see if one of them is connected to the divider node
20. Conditions on Outlet links are now correctly recognized in control
rule statements and an error message is now generated if more than
one rule clause is placed on the same line (see controls.c).
21. When the Ignore Rainfall option is used, a rain gage's rainfall is
now properly initialized to 0 to prevent a spurious rainfall value
from being reported (see gage.c).
22. An explicit check is now made in the engine (which already exists
in the GUI) to see if the ID name of the outlet of a subcatchment
exists as both a node and a subcatchment. If so, then Error 108
is thrown. (See subcatch.c).
23. The column in the Node Depth Summary of the Status Report that
previously displayed the total volume of ponded water at each
node (but was labelled "Total Flooding") now displays the maximum
volume of ponded water at each node and is labelled "Max Vol. Ponded".
Also, flow values appearing in the Status Report's tables were expanded
to 3 decimal places for MGD and CMS units, and an additional
decimal place was added to ponded area and conduit length in the
report's Input Summary tables (see stats.c and report.c).
24. When a node is ponded under dynamic wave routing, the water depth
is now always set equal to the ponded depth rather than the smaller
of the ponded and dynamic depths (see dynwave.c).
25. A more efficient way of processing the mathematical expressions
used in treatment functions has been implemented (see mathexpr.h,
mathexpr.c, and objects.h).
26. A bug in the Groundwater routine that allowed infiltration to
continue even when the entire groundwater table was saturated was
fixed as was a metric units conversion error on computed groundwater
flow (see gwater.c).
27. The locations of the left and right overbank stations for an
irregular channel transect are now adjusted by the Station Modifier
multiplier, in the same way as all of the other station locations
across the transect are.
28. An error in computing the flow contribution of the triangular
ends of a trapezoidal weir was corrected (see link.c).
29. A roundoff error under kinematic wave and steady flow routing that
sometimes caused nodes to be incorrectly reported as ponded was
fixed (see flowrout.c).
1. A "Tools" item was added to SWMM's main menu. The existing menu
options to set Program Preferences and Map Display Options were
moved there. In addition, it contains a "Configure Tools" option
that can be used register add-in tools with SWMM 5. Consult the
Users Manual or the Help file for more information regarding add-
2. A "None" option was added to the choice of routing methods on the
General page of the Simulation Options dialog to accommodate the
new No Routing analysis option.
3. The Property Editor for Pumps was modified to allow the Pump Curve
field to remain blank (or accept a *) to signify the new Ideal type
pump and to accept startup and shutoff depths.
4. The Property Editor for orifices was modified to include a Time To
5. The Unit Hydrograph Editor dialog was modified to include the new
Initial Abstraction parameters.
6. The Analysis Options dialog was modified to accommodate the new
supercritical flow criterion.
7. The Cross-Section Editor and the Curve Editor were modified to
accommodate the new Custom cross-section shape feature as well as
the new Circular Force Main shape.
8. The File | Export menu has a new option that, once a run has been
successfully made, will export the node and link results at the
current time period being viewed to a Hotstart file.
9. The popup menu for toggling the map's Auto-Length feature was
replaced with a check box on the Status Panel.
10. A check box was added to the Map Dimensions dialog to ask if conduit
lengths and subcatchment areas should be recomputed when the Auto-
Length setting is on.
11. The Group Delete feature now offers the option of only deleting
objects with a specific value for their Tag property.
12. Ponded Area was added to the list of node parameters that can be
assigned a default value through the Project >> Defaults menu item.
13. The epaswmm5.ini file that contains a user's program preferences
is now saved to the users Application Data folder, in a sub-folder
named EPASWMM, rather than to the user's home folder.
14. Conduit slopes are no longer displayed as absolute values, so that
negative slopes will show up on a thematic display on the study area
map and will also be identified when a map query is made.
15. The bitmap image on the Run speed button was replaced.
16. The automatic identification of a connected path of links between
two nodes specified on the Profile Plot dialog now uses the path
with the smallest number of links.
17. The Study Area Map's Zoom Out feature no longer uses a zoom out
to previous extent. Instead it zooms out relative to the current
center of the map.
18. The Animator toolbar was made a permanent part of the Map Browser
19. The operation of the date and time controls on the Map Browser panel
were modified to work correctly with reporting times that are larger
than 1 day.
20. The options on the Map Query dialog were extended to allow one to
identify all nodes on the map that have been assigned a particular
type of external inflow (Direct, Dry Weather, RDII, or Groundwater).
Build 5.0.009 (9/19/06)
1. A climate file in the user-prepared format will no longer
be confused with one using the Canadian format (see
2. The minimum runoff which can generate pollutant washoff was
changed from 0.001 in/hr to 0.001 cfs (see subcatch.c).
3. A new RDII event now begins when the duration of a
continuous run of dry weather exceeds the base time of
the longest unit hydrograph rather than arbitrarily being
set at 12 hours (see rdii.c).
4. Problems with dynamic flow routing through long force mains
connected to Type 3 and Type 4 pumps have been corrected (see
dynwave.c and link.c).
1. A problem in displaying profile plots when all elevations
are below zero has been corrected.
Build 5.0.008 (7/5/06)
1. The conversion from the Horton infiltration drying
time input parameter to an equivalent regeneration
curve constant was corrected.
2. Pipe invert elevations at outfalls are now measured
relative to the outfall stage elevation rather than
the outfall's invert elevation.
3. Entrance/exit minor loss terms for dynamic wave flow
routing are now adjusted by the ratio of the mid-point
to entrance/exit areas to improve the energy balance.
4. A possible error in computing flow depth from head when
checking the normal flow limitation based on the Froude
number for dynamic wave flow routing was corrected.
5. A potential problem with converting the units of rainfall
read from an external file was corrected.
6. The equivalent length of orifices and weirs was changed
from being a minimum of 200 ft to a maximum of 200 ft.
7. Problems in displaying washoff mass balance results for
pollutants expressed as Counts/Liter were fixed.
8. The reporting of total system maximum runoff rate in the
Status Report's Subcatchment Runoff Summary table has been
9. The subcatchment pollutant washoff process was
reprogrammed to provide more rigorous mass balance
results for the case where runoff from one subcatchment
is routed over another subcatchment or when there is
direct deposition from rainfall.
10. Checks for non-negative conduit offsets and orifice/
weir/outlet heights have been added.
11. A constant value and a scaling factor have been added to
Direct External inflows. See the Inflows Editor - Direct
Page topic in the Help file for more details.
12. A listing of total washoff loads for each pollutant for
each subcatchment has been added to the Status Report.
13. A new summary table of Node Inflows and Flooding has been
added to the Status Report.
14. A new summary table of Outfall flows and pollutant loads
has been added to the Status Report.
15. The 5.0.006 Engine Update #12 has been revoked.
1. The Inflows Editor was modified to accommodate the baseline
and scaling parameters added to direct external inflows.
2. The .INI file that saves a user's program preferences is now
saved to the user's home directory rather than the SWMM
3. The Select All command was extended to apply to the Status
4. A new text file viewer component was used for the Status
Report to speed up the display of the report's contents.
5. A formating error on the Horizontal Axis page of the Graph
Options dialog form was corrected. This required making
changes to the custom Chart Dialog component that is included
with the GUI's source code.
6. Some cosmetic changes were made to the look of Tabular
7. Type 3 pump curves (head v. flow) are now displayed with
head on the vertical axis and flow on the horizontal axis
when the View option is selected in the Curve Editor dialog.
Build 5.0.007 (3/10/06)
1. An "Ignore Rainfall" analysis option was added that causes
the program to only consider user-supplied external inflow
time series and dry weather flows and ignore any rainfall
inputs that would otherwise produce runoff.
2. The hydraulic radius calculations for Rectangular-Closed,
Rectangular-Triangular, and Rectangular-Round conduit shapes
were modified to account for the increase in wetted perimeter
that occurs under full flow due to the top surface.
3. Refinements were made in several places in the code that need
to distinguish between Full Flow and Maximum Flow conditions in
4. The code now properly accounts for the case where the depth at
which the maximum normal flow occurs through an irregular shaped
cross section is less than the full depth.
5. The final volume of any ponded water (caused by node flooding)
is now included in the reported flow continuity error.
6. Peak runoff flow was added to the Subcatchment Summary table
in the Status Report.
7. Non-conduit links are now included in the Link Flow Summary table
of the Status Report.
1. The Maximum Depth field in the Property Editor for a conduit with
an irregular shape now shows the correct value for any set of
transect elevation values.
2. The "Save Profile to File" button is now enabled when the user
manually adds a specified set of links to the Profile Plot dialog.
3. Link Flow Depth and Link Velocity have been added as choices for
4. The way that non-conduit links are displayed on profile plots was
changed to avoid problems that occurred for weirs and orifices with
crest heights above the node invert.
5. A problem with the way that the Group Editing function was handling
the case of irregular shaped cross sections was fixed.
Build 5.0.006a (10/19/05)
1. The formula for snow melt rate during periods with rainfall
was corrected to return its value in ft/sec rather than in/hr.
2. A problem with generating routing interface files for systems
with just nodes and no links was corrected.
1. Numerical precision problems in computing centroids for
subcatchments with very small distances between vertices
2. A problem with no calibration data being shown on a time
series graph when some of the data were outside the range
of the graph was fixed.
3. A problem with calibration data represented as dates (not
elapsed time) being shifted one reporting period over in
time series graphs that used elapsed time was fixed.
Build 5.0.006 (9/5/05)
1. A new summary table of maximum volumes and outflow rates
for each storage unit has been added to the Status Report.
2. The SWMM 4 BC parameter, which specifies a minimum groundwater
table elevation for groundwater flow to occur, was added as an
optional groundwater flow parameter. If not provided then as
before, the invert of the receiving node defines the minimum
groundwater table elevation for flow to begin.
3. A new option was added to the Action clause of a control rule that
allows the control setting for pumps, orifices, weirs, and outlets
to be defined either by a curve (of setting versus node depth, for
example) or by a time series. See the "Modulated Controls" topic
in the Help file for more details.
4. The problem with interior nodes being mistaken for outfall nodes
(depending on the orientation of the connecting links) under water
quality analyses was fixed.
5. Geometry tables for standard size elliptical pipes were added
(the standard size code number in the input file was being mistaken
for an actual dimension).
6. Storage curves of area versus depth are now linearly extrapolated
when a depth exceeds the table limit (as in SWMM 4) rather than just
keeping the area constant.
7. Evaporation is no longer computed from a storage unit when it
8. In water quality routing, concentrations in storage units are now
adjusted to reflect any evaporation loss over each time step.
9. It is now permissible to use the same hotstart file to both provide
initial values for a run and to save the final values from a run.
10. The code was modified to be able to read evaporation values from a
climate file during runs where no runoff computations are being
made (previously any evaporation in such files was being ignored in
data sets with no subcatchments).
11. A problem in the way that water quality was being routed through
dummy conduits was fixed.
12. For pollutant treatment functions that define fractional removal in
a storage unit node as a function of concentration, the concentration
used is now the inflow concentration into the node (as is done for
non-storage nodes), rather than the concentration in the storage unit.
13. The global first-order decay reaction assigned to specific pollutants
is not applied to any storage unit that has a treatment function
defined for the pollutant.
14. The total moisture available for infiltration at each time step of
the runoff process now has evaporation subtracted from it before
infiltration is computed.
15. Corrections were made to the way that the water volume in the upper
soil zone is depeleted during dry periods under Green- Ampt
16. A climate file is now positioned to begin reading at the start of the
simulation period (rather than the start of the file) unless the user
supplies a specific starting date to begin reading from the file.
17. A fatal error is now generated if the end of a climate file is reached
when seeking climate data during a run (rather than just maintaining
the same climate values for the remainder of the run).
18. The Node and Conduit flow statistics that appear in the Status Report
are now only collected over the reporting period of the simulation,
not the entire period (as would be the case when the user specifies
a Report Start Date that comes after the Simulation Start Date).
19. The computation of the initial and final groundwater storage volumes
used in the Groundwater Continuity table were corrected. This error
only affected the continuity numbers and not the computed flows and
water table levels.
1. The File >> Reopen command will now list up to 10 most recently used
2. Map coordinates are now displayed with 3 decimal places in the Status
3. The File >> Preferences dialog now contains a "Prompt to Save Results"
option. If left unchecked, simulation results will always be saved when
a project file is closed and will be available for viewing the next
time the project is opened.
4. A "Report Elapsed Time by Default" option was also added to the File >>
Preferences dialog. If checked, then time series graphs and tables will
default to using elapsed time, rather than date/time, as the time
variable. This choice can always be changed in the dialog box that
appears when a graph or table is first created.
5. Additional reporting variables were added to the list of parameters
for which Calibration Files can be used (e.g., groundwater elevation,
node flooding, etc.).
6. Percent impervious was added to the list of subcatchment themes that
can be viewed on the Study Area Map.
7. An Exceedance Frequency plot panel was added to the output produced
when a Statistics report is generated.
8. Users can now add, delete, or re-position items in the list of
links selected for a Profile Plot in the Profile Plot dialog using a
new set of buttons added to the dialog. Links are added to the list
by selecting the link either on the Map or from the Data Browser and
then clicking the PLUS button on the dialog.
9. Profile Plots can now be generated before any simulation results are
available. They include an Update button that allows one to update
the plot after editing changes have been made to any nodes or links
contained in the plot.
10. The Edit >> Find menu command (and its associated speed button) was
split into two sub-commands, one for finding objects on the map (as
before) and another for finding text within a Status Report.
11. Problems with the wrong data fields sometimes being updated in the
Group Editor were fixed.
12. The Interface File Combine utility was not working at all (the format
of the interface file had changed since the original code was written).
This has been fixed.
13. The centroids of subcatchment polygons on the map are now computed as
true centroids rather than being merely the average of the vertex
14. The Maximum Depth property is now preserved when a storage unit is
converted to a junction (by right-clicking on it and selecting
Convert To from the popup menu).
15. Map and Profile Plot animation is now turned off whenever the Animator
Toolbar is closed.
16. More universal support was provided for entering numerical values in
scientific notation throughout the GUI's various data entry fields.
17. Display problems with zoom-ins on the preview plots of Transects,
Curves, and Time Series in their respective Editor dialogs were fixed.
18. In the GUI source code:
a. The custom TOpenTextFileDialog component was renamed to
TOpenTxtFileDialog so as not to conflict with a Delphi 2005
component of the same name.
b. The custom ChartDlg component was modified to add support for a
chart axis that uses Date/Time labels.
c. A new unit named Ucalib.pas was added that includes the code for
reading data from Calibration Files that was previously contained
in the Fgraph.pas unit.
d. The Delphi DFM files for the project are now packaged as text
files, not binaries, in the source code distribution.
Build 5.0.005b (6/15/05)
1. The end node offsets for conduits with the partly filled
circular cross-section shape were not being increased to
account for the depth of fill.
2. Flow through a weir was not necessarily zero when the
water level on the side of the weir at higher head was
3. The "crest height" for a Bottom Orifice is now
interpreted as having the orifice lie in a horizontal
plane the specified distance above its upstream node's
invert. This allows riser outlet pipes in storage units
to be simulated.
1. The keyword "WEIR" was not being recognized as a
legitimate type of Flow Divider node by the GUI's
input data file parser.
2. The Profile Plot could display hydraulic grade lines
that dropped below the invert of a conduit.
Build 5.0.005a (5/25/05)
1. An erroneous error message that appears when a node has
multiple outflow links with one of them being an Outlet
link has been fixed.
1. Corrections were made for the way a Profile Plot is
drawn when negative elevation values occur.
Build 5.0.005 (5/20/05)
1. An error in computing ponded depths at flooded nodes under
Dynamic Wave flow routing was corrected.
2. The wrong lookup function was being used to find water
elevations at Time Series type outfall nodes.
3. An error in interpolating values stored on a routing interface
file was corrected.
4. The rainfall file reader was confusing the standard space-
delimted format with other file formats.
5. A reporting error for rainfall time series that had no ending
zero value was corrected.
6. A problem with neglecting to compute a snowmelt coefficient
for pervious areas was fixed.
7. The keyword for specifying that pollutant buildup be normalized
to curb length was modified to accept either CURB or CURBLENGTH.
8. The conversion factor the user supplies for external pollutant
mass inflows must now convert time series values into mass
concentration units per second (e.g., 5.25 will convert from lbs/
day to mg/sec). Flow units are no longer part of the conversion.
9. The ratio of maximum to design flow listed for each conduit in
the status report was corrected to account for the number of
barrels included in the conduit.
10. The minimum elevation change applied to a flat conduit was
changed to 0.001 feet, as used in SWMM 4.
11. The maximum depth of an irregular cross-section transect is now
based on the highest elevation of all stations, rather than just
the higher of the first and last station, and vertical walls
extending up to the higest elevation are added at the first and
last station if need be.
12. The nominal width property of an irregular cross-section transect
is now taken as the top width at full depth rather than the
maximum width over all depths.
13. At outfalls where the user-specified water elevation is below
that of a free outfall, the free outfall elevation is now used.
14. A new property, the maximum allowable flow, was added to the
Conduit object. The default value is 0.0, which indicates that
no maxmimum flow is prescribed.
15. Depths at outfall nodes under Steady and Kinematic Wave flow
routing are now reported as the depth in the connecting
16. The calculation of the head over a non-surcharged, submerged weir
was corrected to be based on the height of water above the weir
crest, rather than the difference in heads on either side of the
17. The equation used to reduce the length of a weir with side
contractions was modified to fix a bug in SWMM 4.
18. A new water quality routing algorithm was written that produces
more robust results under Dynamic Wave flow routing.
19. The Compatibility Mode option under Dynamic Wave flow routing was
removed. Now there is just a single method used which has been
designed to be compatible with SWMM 4 yet produce more stable
20. A new dynamic wave routing option was added that determines which
criterion decides when conduit flow is limited to normal flow (it
represents the KSUPER parameter used in SWMM 4).
21. A new flow routing option was added that allows routing calculations
to be skipped during periods of steady flow which can greatly reduce
the time required for continuous simulations.
1. An error in reading the flapgate parameter for Weirs in an input
file was corrected.
2. Having the Property Editor positioned outside the viewable screen
area when the user changed the video settings to a lower resolution
3. The Convert To option to change nodes from one type of object to
another was fixed.
4. The Routing Time Step option is now entered as fractional seconds
on the Analysis Options form. The older format of hrs:min:sec will
still be imported correctly from previous SWMM5 input files.
5. The ability to include a startup input file on the command line
that launches the GUI was added (add /f filename to the command
line where filename is the fully qualified name of the input file
to start with).
6. Support for output results files greater than 2 gigabytes was added.
7. The display of the hydraulic grade line in Profile Plots, and its
intersection with the flow volume in conduits was improved.
8. The summary results tables contained in the Status Report were
modified to display more useful information.
9. The graph options selection dialogs were made to behave more
10. Support was added for copying and printing the graphical views of
curves, time series, and transects from within their respective
11. The SWMM 4 flow calibration data file (Extran1.dat) distributed with
the example data set Example2.inp was modified to contain the flows
actually produced by SWMM version 4.4h, rather than the original
numbers printed in the 1988 Extran manual.
In addition, the SWMM 5.0 Users Manual and Help file were updated to
reflect these changes and new additions.
Build 5.0.004 (11/24/04)
1. Fixes were made to the routines that identify and read data from the
NCDC-formatted external rain files.
2. The sign of reported velocity in links with adverse slope was
3. Reading of results from previously saved Runoff Interface files
4. The calculation of a regeneration rate constant from a soil drying
time value for Curve Number infiltration was corrected, and the
method was modified to use a constant infiltration capacity during
each rain event, rather than a continuously declining capacity.
5. A correction was made to the dynamic wave routing routine for
SWMM4 and SWMM3 compatibility modes that improves the match with
Extran results from these earlier versions of SWMM.
6. The check for zero-sloped conduits was modified to include any
conduit with elevation difference below 0.01 feet.
7. The computation of the ponded depth at flooded nodes under dynamic
wave flow routing was corrected.
8. A check was added to make sure that the reporting time step is
not longer than the run duration.
9. Surcharged and high Froude number conduits were previously excluded
from consideration when computing a variable time step for dynamic
wave routing; they are now included.
10. The code numbers for the concentration units used for each pollutant
was added to the binary output file produced from a simulation.
1. Negative values can now be entered for temperature values that
appear on several input forms.
2. The input file reader now checks to make sure that the various time-
of-day option values are valid.
3. A problem with copying the correct dates for a Tabular Report that
is being copied to the clipboard or to a file was corrected.
4. The Graph Options dialog form was modified to display the Solid
option for Style whenever a Size greater than 1 is selected. (Due
to a limitation of the Graphics library used in EPA SWMM, only
solid lines can be drawn at a thickness greater than 1.)
Build 5.0.003 (11/10/04)
1. Modifications were made to full depth entries of width tables for
closed rounded cross-section shapes to improve the numerical
stability for dynamic wave flow routing.
2. Error 405 was added to detect if the size of the binary results
file would exceed the 2.1 Gbyte system limit.
3. A units problem for RDII inflows under metric flow units was
4. A problem reading the TEMPDIR option when it contained spaces was
5. Support for Canadian DLY02 and DLY04 temperature files was added.
6. Rule-based control of crest height for weirs was corrected
(previously the control setting adjusted flow rather than the
relative distance between weir crest and crown).
1. A problem with the Group Editing feature for conduits was corrected
(the editor would update the wrong conduit parameter).
2. Execution time for long term simulations on smaller projects was
speeded up considerably by only refreshing the progress meter every
day rather than every minute.
3. The time to draw time series graphs and perform statistical analyses
on large data sets was considerably shortened.
Build 5.0.002 (11/1/04)
1. Modifications made to the Picard method used for dynamic wave
flow routing routine.
Build 5.0.001 (10/29/04)
First official release of SWMM 5.
GIS Gateway – Create Shapefile T he Create Shapefile tool available from the GIS Gateway , allows you to create a new ESRI® Shapefile dir...
Comment: A really nice water analogy for the field properties Divergence, Curl and Gradient from the Blog Starts With a Bang ....it&...
Engine Error Number Description ERROR 101: memory allocation error. ...
Soffit Level ( pipe technology ) The top point of the inside open section of a pipe or box conduit. The soffit is the ...