## Sunday, April 23, 2017

### Area of a Manhole in #SWMM5

The default area of a manhole is used if the inverts of the connecting links are all above the invert of the node:
1.     Invert of the node to the Invert of the lowest connecting link, the area of the manhole is 1.2 square meters or whatever the user defines,
2.     If the water surface is between the invert of the lowest connecting link and the soffit of the highest connecting link then the area of the node is ½ of the area of the connecting links
3.     If the water surface of the node is above the soffit of the highest connecting link then the area of the node is zero and the program tries to balance the flow into and out of the node so the total flow is zero

## Monday, April 17, 2017

### Simple SI Unit Model for SWMM5 LID with 100 mm Rainfall - Part 2

This blog is a companion to the blog post https://swmm5.org/2017/04/17/swmm5-simple-100-mm-rainfall-model-for-lid-modeling-part-1/ in which a 1 Hectare model with 100 mm of rainfall had a simple Bio-Retention Cell with no LID outflows.  In part 2 of this blog series we will add a drain coefficient of 10 mm/hr (Figure 1).  The internal pervious area is 0.375 hectares, the nonLID area is 0.75 hectares and the two impervious area are 0.1875 hectares each. The example uses 100 mm of rainfall or precipitation to make the comparisons easier.  The LID Drainage outflow of 27.93 mm (Figure 2) is 6.98 mm over the whole 1 hectare Subcatchment (Figure 3).

The BMP removal is still 100 percent of the SF1 pollutant generation

Figure 1 A 10 mm/hr Drain Coefficient to the LID

Figure 2  The LID now has Drain outflow of 27.84 mm

Figure 3 The LID Drainage outflow of 27.93 mm (Figure 2) is 6.98 mm over the whole 1 hectare Subcatchment

### #SWMM5 Simple 100 mm Rainfall model for #LID modeling - Part 1

Simple SI Unit Model for SWMM5 LID with 100 mm Rainfall.
Reading this blog and using the embedded SWMM 5 example file, you will run a simple SI unit model based on factors of 1 and 10. The LID (Bio-Retention Cell) is designed to have zero outflows, Figure 1, as the storage is set to 1000 mm. The Subcatchment area is 1 hectare, the prevent impervious is ½ hectare divided into ¼ hectare sections with and without depression storage, the pervious area is ½ hectare (Figure 2). The LID Bio-Retention area is ¼ hectare or 25 percent of the Subcatchment. The SWMM5 divides the Subcatchment into nonLID and Lid sections (Figure 3) and the impervious area and pervious areas are automatically reduced by the SWMM5 engine (Figure 6). The internal pervious area is 0.375 hectares, the nonLID area is 0.75 hectares and the two impervious area are 0.1875 hectares each. The example uses 100 mm of rainfall or precipitation to make the comparisons easier.
Figure 1 SWMM 5 Bio-Retention Cell Example with settings based on 10 so that no flow leaves the LID.  The Berm and Storage Height are set to 1000 mm.
Figure 2 Power of 10 SI unit example for Subcatchment and LID in SWMM5.  The Subcatchment area is 1 hectare, the prevent impervious is ½ hectare divided into ¼ hectare sections with and without depression storage, the pervious area is ½ hectare
Figure 3 Four types of Runoff Surfaces in SWMM5 with LID's
Figure 4 Subcatchment Summary in SWMM5 - there is no Runoff and all of the Pervious Flow Infiltrates.  The pervious infiltration is 37.5 mm which is the percentage of the 1 Hectare Subcatchment covered by the pervious area.
Figure 5 LID Summary - no flow out of the LID, only storage.  The LID area has initial and final storage - the final storage is the total inflow + the initial storage. The total inflow is 100 mm of rainfall + 37.5 mm of Impervious Runoff / 0.25 Hectares or 150 mm for a total of 250 mm.
Figure 6 Division of 1 Hectare Subcatchment into LID and NonLID Areas.  The internal pervious area is 0.375 hectares, the nonLID area is 0.75 hectares and the two impervious area are 0.1875 hectares each.
[TITLE]
;;Project Title/Notes
LID Model
[OPTIONS]
;;Option Value
FLOW_UNITS CMS
INFILTRATION HORTON
FLOW_ROUTING DYNWAVE
MIN_SLOPE 0
ALLOW_PONDING YES
START_DATE 03/22/2017
START_TIME 00:00:00
REPORT_START_DATE 03/22/2017
REPORT_START_TIME 00:00:00
END_DATE 03/23/2017
END_TIME 00:00:00
SWEEP_START 01/01
SWEEP_END 01/03
DRY_DAYS 0
REPORT_STEP 00:05:00
WET_STEP 00:05:00
DRY_STEP 01:00:00
ROUTING_STEP 0:00:05
INERTIAL_DAMPING PARTIAL
NORMAL_FLOW_LIMITED BOTH
FORCE_MAIN_EQUATION H-W
VARIABLE_STEP 0.75
LENGTHENING_STEP 0
MIN_SURFAREA 1.14
MAX_TRIALS 8
SYS_FLOW_TOL 5
LAT_FLOW_TOL 5
MINIMUM_STEP 0.5
[EVAPORATION]
;;Data Source Parameters
;;-------------- ----------------
CONSTANT 0.0
DRY_ONLY NO
[RAINGAGES]
;;Name Format Interval SCF Source
;;-------------- --------- ------ ------ ----------
1 INTENSITY 0:05 1.0 TIMESERIES A
[SUBCATCHMENTS]
;;Name Rain Gage Outlet Area %Imperv Width %Slope CurbLen SnowPack
;;-------------- ---------------- ---------------- -------- -------- -------- -------- -------- ----------------
; Name Raingage Outlet Area %Imperv Width Slope Clength
100 1 1 1 50 100 1 0.000000
[SUBAREAS]
;;Subcatchment N-Imperv N-Perv S-Imperv S-Perv PctZero RouteTo PctRouted
;;-------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
100 0.013000 0.050000 0 100 50 OUTLET
[INFILTRATION]
;;Subcatchment MaxRate MinRate Decay DryTime MaxInfil
;;-------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
100 50 10 1 999.000000 0.000000
[LID_CONTROLS]
;;Name Type/Layer Parameters
;;-------------- ---------- ----------
Bio-Retention BC
Bio-Retention SURFACE 1000 0.0 0.1 1 5
Bio-Retention SOIL 1000 .5 .25 .10 10 10.0 100
Bio-Retention STORAGE 1000 0.1 0 0
Bio-Retention DRAIN 0 0.5 0 6
[LID_USAGE]
;;Subcatchment LID Process Number Area Width InitSat FromImp ToPerv RptFile DrainTo
;;-------------- ---------------- ------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ------------------------ ----------------
100 Bio-Retention 1 2500 10 0 100 0
[JUNCTIONS]
;;Name Elevation MaxDepth InitDepth SurDepth Aponded
;;-------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
2 101 4.342740 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000
1 102 7.298640 0.000000 0.000000 80000.000000
[OUTFALLS]
;;Name Elevation Type Stage Data Gated Route To
;;-------------- ---------- ---------- ---------------- -------- ----------------
3 100 FREE NO
[CONDUITS]
;;Name From Node To Node Length Roughness InOffset OutOffset InitFlow MaxFlow
;;-------------- ---------------- ---------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
12 1 2 100 .01 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0
23 2 3 100 .01 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0
[XSECTIONS]
;;Link Shape Geom1 Geom2 Geom3 Geom4 Barrels Culvert
;;-------------- ------------ ---------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
12 CIRCULAR 1 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1
23 RECT_CLOSED 1 1.600000 0.000000 0.000000 1
[LOSSES]
;;Link Kentry Kexit Kavg Flap Gate Seepage
;;-------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
12 0 0 0.000000 NO 0
23 0 0 0.000000 NO 0
[POLLUTANTS]
;;Name Units Crain Cgw Crdii Kdecay SnowOnly Co-Pollutant Co-Frac Cdwf Cinit
;;-------------- ------ ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------------- ---------- ---------- ----------
SF1 MG/L 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 NO * 0.0 0.0 0.0
[LANDUSES]
;; Sweeping Fraction Last
;;Name Interval Available Swept
;;-------------- ---------- ---------- ----------
A 0 0 0
[COVERAGES]
;;Subcatchment Land Use Percent
;;-------------- ---------------- ----------
100 A 100
;;Subcatchment Pollutant Buildup
;;-------------- ---------------- ----------
100 SF1 40
[BUILDUP]
;;Land Use Pollutant Function Coeff1 Coeff2 Coeff3 Per Unit
;;-------------- ---------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
A SF1 POW 0.0 1 1 AREA
[WASHOFF]
;;Land Use Pollutant Function Coeff1 Coeff2 SweepRmvl BmpRmvl
;;-------------- ---------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
A SF1 EXP 1 1 0.0 0.0
[TIMESERIES]
;;Name Date Time Value
;;-------------- ---------- ---------- ----------
A 00:00 0
A 00:05 9.573452431
A 00:10 10.25274205
A 00:15 11.04623792
A 00:20 11.98563822
A 00:25 13.11546308
A 00:30 14.50019616
A 00:35 16.2367101
A 00:40 18.47713325
A 00:45 21.47391061
A 00:50 25.67639064
A 00:55 31.96236514
A 01:00 42.28290598
A 01:05 61.90323665
A 01:10 110.6596749
A 01:15 202.1863528
A 01:20 122.9825837
A 01:25 78.78745972
A 01:30 57.07434496
A 01:35 44.44627995
A 01:40 36.29030405
A 01:45 30.63131568
A 01:50 26.49481575
A 01:55 23.34912428
A 02:00 20.88150483
A 02:05 18.89679137
A 02:10 17.26739526
A 02:15 15.9065854
A 02:20 14.75345383
A 02:25 13.76406613
A 02:30 12.9059759
A 02:35 12.15470506
A 02:40 11.49147541
A 02:45 10.90163374
A 02:50 10.37359955
A 02:55 9.898093036
A 03:00 9.467598431
[REPORT]
;;Reporting Options
INPUT YES
CONTROLS NO
SUBCATCHMENTS ALL
NODES ALL
[TAGS]
[MAP]
DIMENSIONS 82757.219 8542.173 83495.650 8753.113
Units None
[COORDINATES]
;;Node X-Coord Y-Coord
;;-------------- ------------------ ------------------
2 83134.103 8743.516
1 82811.980 8743.508
3 83462.085 8743.524
[VERTICES]
;;-------------- ------------------ ------------------
[Polygons]
;;Subcatchment X-Coord Y-Coord
;;-------------- ------------------ ------------------
100 83119.103 8710.484
100 83119.103 8551.761
100 82790.784 8551.761
100 82793.138 8710.780
100 82813.136 8730.484
100 83099.103 8730.484
100 83119.103 8710.484
[SYMBOLS]
;;Gage X-Coord Y-Coord
;;-------------- ------------------ ------------------
1 82983.981 8630.926

## Friday, April 14, 2017

### InfoSWMM SA SWMMLive Manager

InfoSWMM SA SWMMLive Manager is the single utility in InfoSWMM SA to manage all interactions between InfoSWMM SA models and SWMMLive model data exchange. It exports the active InfoSWMM SA scenario as the baseline model to SWMMLive. It allows extension of selected InfoSWMM SA scenarios as additional supporting model data to SWMMLive for scenario switching. It also accepts an exported SWMMLive model for detailed diagnosis run in InfoSWMM SA, supported with all the familiar InfoSWMM SA utilities.

InfoSWMM SA SWMMLive Manager is accessed from the AddOn Extension Manager via its toolbar button or from the Tools menu (Tools - AddOn Extension Manager).
The InfoSWMM SA SWMMLive Manager User Interface is shown below.
The InfoSWMM SA SWMMLive Manager main dialog box has three tabs: Export Model to SWMMLive, Extend Scenario Data to SWMMLive, and Diagnose SWMMLive Model.  All model exchanges between InfoSWMM SA and SWMMLive are made through model definition files with extension inp.
• Export Model to SWMMLive - Exports the active InfoSWMM SA model for SWMMLive (InfoSWMM SA) to create a baseline model.  All essential information about the active InfoSWMM SA model is exported into the given inp file.  If current InfoSWMM SA model contains scenario data, this option can be used in conjunction with selected scenarios to export scenario-based models with overriding operational scenario data.  All scenario-based model inp files will be exported to their respective scenario sub-folders under the baseline model path.
• Extend Scenario Data to SWMMLive - Exports additional InfoSWMM SA scenario models based on a provided SWMMLive baseline model.  The operational data from the selected scenarios will be merged into the given SWMMLive reference model to form different scenario models, to be used in SWMMLive.  All scenario-based model inp files will be exported to their respective sub-folders under the given baseline model path.
• Diagnose SWMMLive Model - Diagnoses a given SWMMLive model using the full utilities available from InfoSWMM SA.  The given SWMMLive model is imported into InfoSWMM SA for any diagnosis analysis in InfoSWMM SA.

## Export Model to SWMMLive

In the box of Export Model File to SWMMLive, an inp file is specified for InfoSWMM SA SWMMLive Manager to store the InfoSWMM SA model information.
Browse for a folder location and specify an inp file name.
If the InfoSWMM SA model is blank, SWMMLive Manager will not export.  Otherwise, SWMMLive Manager exports the active scenario as the baseline model to SWMMLive.

## Thursday, April 13, 2017

### How can there be more flow in a pipe than its full capacity? #SWMM5 and #InfoSWMM

This post is borrowed from our Innovyze blog and modified for #SWMM5

http://blog.innovyze.com/2017/03/31/surcharge-flow-vs-pipe-full-capacity-in-icm/

You may have noticed, that in some instances, the Pipe full capacity value on a pipe in #SWMM5 is less than the maximum simulation flow in a surcharged pipe. How can there be more flow in a pipe than its full capacity?

The Qfull in the link input summary table is calculated from the Manning's equation. Manning's equation is simpler than the full solution St Venant equations used by the SWMM5 simulation engine used to generate the model results. Therefore, there can sometimes be differences between Qfull (based on the slope) and the actual flow that can discharge as calculated using the 1D St Venant Equations. The Qfull value is only intended to be an approximation/reference for the user. It is not used by the engine to determine when a pipe goes into surcharge.

Manning's equation assumes that the pipe is infinitely long and therefore there is often more flow through a pipe than the quoted capacity, without it going into surcharge. To prove this is the case you can make the pipe a longer length or apply a constant max flow and you should see the pipe surcharging. The length of the pipe has a significant effect. You may find that a pipe of say 10 meters can carry much more flow than one of 100 meters, given the same gradient, roughness etc.due to the longer length and the increased friction loss.

## Tuesday, April 4, 2017

### Use Sublime Text to Diff two files in the same folder for SWMM 5 C Code

Sublime Text is nice but not a free Text Editor for large files.  However, it does have a limited file difference capability – here is how you can use Sublime Text to Diff two files in the same folder for SWMM 5 C Code.  You can also use this to compare dozens of files in Sublime - which is needed for a program such as SWM 5 which has been continuously updated from 2003 to 2017 with at least 35? major version.  This makes it easy for example to compare the groundwater or rdii code between 2005 / 2012 and 2017, for example.

## Sunday, April 2, 2017

### EPA #SWMM5 Build 5.1.012 (03/14/17) Updates

```SWMM 5.1 Update History
=======================
------------------------
Build 5.1.012 (03/14/17)
------------------------

1.  The direct.h header is now only #included in the swmm5.c file when
compiled for Windows. (swmm5.c)

2.  Engine Update #7 in Build 5.1.011 (internally aligning the wet time
step with the reporting time step) was redacted since it caused
problems for certain combinations of time steps. (runoff.c)

3.  A subcatchment's bottom elevation is now used instead its parent
aquifer's value when saving a water table value to the binary results
file. (subcatch.c)

4.  A bug that failed to limit surface inflitration into a saturated rain
garden LID unit was fixed. (lidproc.c)

5.  Calculation of the maximum limit on LID drain flows was modified to
produce smoother results at low depths above the drain offset.
(lidproc.c)

6.  A variable used for reporting detailed LID results is now properly
initialized. (lid.c & lid.h)

7.  The occasional writing of duplicate lines to the detailed LID results
file was fixed. (lidproc.c)

8.  The conversion from conduit seepage rate per unit area to rate per unit
of length was changed to use top width instead of wetted perimeter since
only vertical seepage is assumed to occur. (link.c)

9.  The coefficient of the evaporation/seepage term in the dynamic wave
equation for updating conduit flow was corrected (from 1.5 to 2.5).
(dwflow.c)

10. The Engels flow equation for side flow weirs was corrected (the original
equation used in SWMM 3 & 4 was incorrect). (link.c)

11. Crest length reductions for end contractions are no longer used for

12. The Slope Correction Factor for culverts with mitered inlets was corrected.
(culvert.c)

13. An entry in the table of gravel roadway weir coefficients was corrected.

14. The user supplied minimum slope option is now initialized to 0.0
(meaning none is provided). (project.c)

15. NO/YES are no longer accepted as attributes for the NORMAL_FLOW_LIMITED
dynamic wave simulation option (only SLOPE/FROUDE/BOTH are valid).
(project.c)

16. Changes were made so that the Routing Events and Skip Steady Flow
options work correctly together. (routing.c & globals.h)

17. Steady state periods with no flow routing no longer contribute to the
routing time step statistics. (stats.c and report.c)

18. When compiling statistics on the frequency of full conduit flow the
number of barrels is now accounted for. (stats.c)

19. Under kinematic wave or steady flow routing, the water level in
storage nodes that have no outflow links is now updated correctly
over time. (flowrout.c)

20. The formula for the depth at maximum width for the Modified Basket Handle
cross section was corrected. (xsect.c)

1.  Profile plots now correctly update the main and axis title text when
changed via the Profile Plot Options dialog. Also the downstream
offset height of non-conduit links is set to 0 on the plot.

2.  The LID Control Editor now sets the Storage Layer Thickness to 0 when
a Rain Garden is selected as the type of LID being edited.

3.  An OnChange event handler was added to each of the LID Control Editor's
data fields to record when a value is changed.```

### Graphing Infographic for #InfoSWMM

Graphing Infographic for InfoSWMM. Three different ways to run models :
1. Batch Mode
2. Single Run Manager
3. Changing Scenarios and then using the Single Run Manager
4. Your number one debugging tool is the System graphs, it tells you the total rainfall, runoff, flooding, outflow and storage in one easy to see graph or table

### InfoSWMM Version Numbers and the version of Arc Map they use and which EPA SWMM5 Engine is used for Each InfoSWMM Version

InfoSWMM Version Numbers  InfoSWMM Version 14.7  Update 3 for Arc Map 10 to 10.8 and Windows 7/8/8.1/10 - EPA SWMM 5.1.014   4/12/2020   ...