Showing posts from 2008

SWMM 5 Pond Infiltration

You can model the pond infiltration indirectly by using either:

1. a Pump Type 4 (the classic SWMM 4 solution to this matter), in which the Pump simulates the pond depth - infiltration rate function,

2. alter the SWMM 5 Evap Factor for a pond so that you have seasonal or monthly variation in your infiltration loss simulated as an increase in Pan Evaporation or

3. You can use the newer SWMM 5 Outlet structure and use either a functional or tabular relationship to simulate the infiltration loss as a function of pond depth.

If you search the CHI Knowledge database you can also find some suggestions from Mike Gregory (and others) about modeling infiltration loss from a pond. I would recommend items 2 and 3 because "An outlet curve in SWMM 5 has the same functionality as a SWMM 4 Depth related pump ( Flow versus Depth) but it has the great advantage of being explicitly designed to have multiple functions; does not have the appearance of being an ad hoc solution (as a pump simulating infil…

SWMM 5 Variable Time Step

SWMM 5 Variable Time Step

In the SWMM 5 Simulation Options/Dynamic Wave Options is the Variable Time Step Frame which contains the Adjustment Factor Percentage. The Adjustment Factor is a multiplication factor on the CFL condition.

The effiect of changing the Adjustment factor can be seen in the following graph. As the value of the adjustment factor changes from 75 to 50 to 25 the time step used in the program decreases because the time step gets further away from the CFL time step condition.

SWMM5 Normal Flow

Option "Define Supercritical Flow By" does inside the SWMM 5 engine. The options are called Slope, Froude and Bothin the GUI and in the engine of SWMM 5. A few other variable definitions you need to know to understand this explanation are: (1) Y1 for the upstream link depth, (2) Y2 for the downstream link depth, (3) Q for the flow in the link, (4)Qfull for the full Manning's equation flow or normal flow for the link based on the bed slope, (5) Froude1 and Froude2 for the Froude Number respectively of the upstream and downstream ends of the link, (6) n for Manning's roughness, (7) Yfull for the maximum depth of the link and (8) Qnormal for the Normal Flow equation flow based on the upstream area of the link (A1) and the upstream hydraulic radius (R1).

In the SWMM 5 engine these options are used after the dynamic wave equation flow is estimated using the St. Venant equation. The option that you choose is only active for those links that have a flow greater than 0, links…

Smaller Storms Drop Larger Overall Rainfall In Hurricane Season

Smaller Storms Drop Larger Overall Rainfall In Hurricane Season

ScienceDaily (Dec. 11, 2007) — Researchers have found that when residents of the U.S. southeastern states look skyward for rain to alleviate a long-term drought, they should be hoping for a tropical storm over a hurricane for more reasons than one. According to a new study using NASA satellite data, smaller tropical storms do more to alleviate droughts than hurricanes do over the course of a season by bringing greater cumulative rainfall.

A new study that provides insight into what kind of storms are best at tackling drought in the southeastern United States. The study focuses on a decade of first-ever daily rainfall measurements by a NASA satellite carrying a weather radar in space. The study's authors believe the same insights can be applied by meteorologists and public officials to other regions where daily satellite rainfall data and storm tracking data are available.

In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, meteorologis…

How to Make an InfoSWMM model from the DBF Files

Follow the following steps to create MY .MXD file.
1) Open an empty InfoSWMM project. Do not initialize it.
2) Save the project as MY .MXD within the folder where you have MY. ISDB
3) Initialize the project.
4) Click the reset Display button
That should create the project for you.  If you want an H2OMAP SWMM project, you can save the InfoSWMM model, and then Import it from H2OMAP SWMM.

Force Main Transition in SWMM 5

Force Main Transition between Partial and Full Flow

1. If the force main is full then the program will use either Hazen-Willams or Darcy-Weisbach to calculate the friction loss (term dq1),

2. If the force main is NOT full then the program will use Manning's Equation.

// --- compute terms of momentum eqn.:
// --- 1. friction slope term
if ( xsect->type == FORCE_MAIN && isFull )
dq1 = dt * forcemain_getFricSlope(j, fabs(v), rMid);
else dq1 = dt * Conduit[k].roughFactor / pow(rWtd, 1.33333) * fabs(v);

double forcemain_getFricSlope(int j, double v, double hrad)
// Input: j = link index
// v = flow velocity (ft/sec)
// hrad = hydraulic radius (ft)
// Output: returns a force main pipe's friction slope
// Purpose: computes the headloss per unit length used in dynamic wave
// flow routing for a pressurized force main using either the
// Hazen-Williams or Darcy-Weisbach flow equations.
// Note: the pipe's roughness…

World Rainfall


SCS Rainfall Distributions and Design Storms

SCS Rainfall Distributions for H20MAP and InfoSWMM

The base file has a 24 hyetograph for SCS Type 1A and SCS Type 2 distrubutions. The total of the rainfall is 1 inch and to make a 25 year or 50 year storm you follow these steps:

1. Clone the rainfall time series and

2. Use the Field Calculator in DB Edit to change the total rainfall by using the operand in the Field Calculator dialog. For example, the picture shown below will make a 10 inch 24 hour rainfall in the new time series.
You will end up with two series: (1) the base 1 inch hyetograph and (2) the new design storm of 10 inches.

H2OMAP and InfoSWMM Sediment Transport Modeling

H2OMAP SWMM and InfoSWMM Sediment Transport Modeling
Sanitary and combined sewer systems can carry substantial loads of suspended solids (waste solids) which can accumulate and cause blockages thereby impairing the hydraulic capacity of the sewer pipes (by restricting their flow area and increasing the bed friction resistance). H2OMAP SWMM and InfoSWMM can simulate the transport and gravitational settling of (total suspended solids including grit) over time throughout the sewer collection system under varying hydraulic conditions. As long as flow velocity exceeds the critical/terminal velocity, H2OMAP SWMM and InfoSWMM assumes that the sewage flow has the capacity to transport all incoming . Deposited  particles are also assumed to be scoured and transported downstream when velocity of the sewage flow exceeds the terminal velocity. Settling starts when flow velocity falls below the critical velocity. In the model, transport of thet particles is governed by advection implying that the p…

Modified Basket Handle Cross Section Warnings

There is a rule in SWMM 5 that the depth cannot be less than half the bottom width for a modified basket handle(see below).  You always have to have a maximum depth less than 50 percent or 1/1 of the bottom width,  If you do not meet this criterion then the program will generate an invalid number warning.  This is the code from xsect.c that checks the validity of the cross section data:
    case MOD_BASKET:         if ( p[1] <= 0.0 || p[0] <>        xsect->yFull = p[0]/ucf;         xsect->wMax  = p[1]/ucf;

Wave Of Sewage Flows Toward Tampa Bay

TBO > News Wave Of Sewage Flows Toward Bay Tribune photo by CANDACE C. MUNDY Workers with Spectrum Underground Inc. work to repair a 20-inch sewage pipeline which broke in Town 'N Country this afternoon.
The Tampa Tribune Published: September 13, 2008 TOWN 'N COUNTRY - Approximately 200,000 gallons of untreated sewage spilled into Sweetwater Creek on Friday afternoon, prompting a warning to residents along the creek to avoid the water, Hillsborough County officials said. The spill occurred along Comanche Avenue just east of Hanley Road when a 20-inch sewage pipeline ruptured. The break was at a connection point to a section that had been replaced about eight weeks ago, officials said. Because the work had been done so recently, it was under warranty, and the original contractor returned to fix the break, said Bill Bozeman, project manager for the county's water resource services. Bozeman did not know what caused it. The fracture, reported by a passer-by at about 12:45 p…

Manual de SWMM 5 en espanol

SWMM 5 View Variables

SWMM 5 View Variables
There are four types of graphical variables in SWMM 5: (1) Subcatchements, (2) System, (3) Nodes and (4) Links.  The SWMM 5 Hydrology binary graphics file consists of 21 view variables for each subcatcment simulation in SWMM 5.  The variables are:
Subcatchment VariablesDescription      SUBCATCH_RAINFALL rainfall intensity      SUBCATCH_SNOWFALLsnowfall intensity      SUBCATCH_RUNOFFtotal runoff flow rate      SUBCATCH_RUNOFF_IMPZerorunoff flow rate from zero imp area feb 2007      SUBCATCH_RUNOFF_IMPrunoff flow rate from imp area feb 2007      SUBCATCH_RUNOFF_Perviousrunoff flow rate from pervious area feb 2007      SUBCATCH_LOSSEStotal losses (infil)      SUBCATCH_EVAPwatershed evaporation loss      SUBCATCH_DEPTHwatershed depth      SUBCATCH_GW_FLOWgroundwater flow rate to node      SUBCATCH_GW_FLOW_A1groundwater flow rate to node      SUBCATCH_GW_FLOW_A2groundwater flow rate to node      SUBCATCH_GW_FLOW_A3 groundwater flow rate to node      SUBCATCH_GW_ELEVele…

How Much Can You Learn From a Home DNA Test?

How much does your DNA determine your future? Our reporter has her DNA analyzed by three different labs, and shares every detail of the results... as well as how she copes with them.

read more | digg story

EMC Washoff in SWMM5

There are four steps to using EMC concentrations in your network:

1. Define your pollutant by adding a pollutant using the Data=>Quality=>Pollutant command:

2. Define the Land Use by using the Data=>Land Uses command or the Land Use Editor:

3. Define Buildup to be None by clicking on the None Tab:

4. Define the EMC Washoff concentration by clicking on the Washoff Tab:

This is where you would add a GW concentration


Hurricane Dennis Tampa 2005


Papaya Bugs and Gators

Papaya Bugs and Gators in the Backyard

A bug on our backyard Papaya trees. The papaya trees survived but the frost of January 2008 killed many of the trees. They are growing back, however.


PuddleBlog is the image history of one small to large puddle on an American Street:

What is Puddleblog, you ask? Puddleblog chronicles the epic journey of one puddle, bracing for an uncertain future.

It’s a blog. You know, for a puddle. Specifically, the puddle that graces the corner of Jay and Plymouth, a couple blocks east of the Manhattan Bridge. Maybe if this thing catches on we can think about including other qualified puddles.

Note now forwards to which forwards to one of the wonderfulNing social network sites.

SWMM 3,4 to 5 Converter Interface

SWMM 3,4 to 5 Converter Interface
The SWMM 3 and SWMM 4 converter can convert up to two files at one time to SWMM 5. Typically you would convert a Runoff and Transport file to SWMM 5 or a Runoff and Extran File to SWMM 5. If you have a combination of a SWMM 4 Runoff, Transport and Extran network then you will have to convert it in pieces and copy and past the two data sets together to make one SWMM 5 data set.

The x,y coordinate file is only necessary if you do not have existing x, y coordinates on the D1 line of the SWMM 4 Extran input data set.

You can use the command File=>Define Ini File to define the location of the ini file. The ini file will save your conversion project input data files and directories.

You can use the command File=>Define Your Text Editor to define the location of the text editor program. The ini file will save your conversion project editor name.

You can get a copy of the latest SWMM 3,4 to 5 Converter Here..

Hydrology in Ecclesiastes

Hydrology in Ecclesiastes

1:5 The sun also ariseth, and the sun goeth down, and hasteth to his place where he arose.

1:6 The wind goeth toward the south, and turneth about unto the north;
it whirleth about continually, and the wind returneth again according
to his circuits.

1:7 All the rivers run into the sea; yet the sea is not full; unto the
place from whence the rivers come, thither they return again.

This was a better description than in Aristotle.

Hurricane Ivan in Pittsburgh, 2004

 International Airport recorded the highest 24-hour rainfall for Pittsburgh, recording 5.95 in. of rain. NWS Pittsburgh Climate Data, August, 2004." Hourly Climate Data. Pittsburgh, PA. 21 June 2006.

Spatial Step in SWMM 5

SWMM 3,4,5 uses a spatial step equal to the length of the link. Or, in terms of the 1D St. Venant Equation for the calculation of flow used in SWMM 5:

In which is the length of the conduit.

The program will calculate the cross sectional area, hydraulic radius top width and depth at the upstream, midpoint and downstream sections of the link. The link solution is pivoted on the midpoint cross sectional area in the dominant dynamic wave terms and

and the non-linear term in the dynamic wave equationuses the upstream and downstream link cross sectional areas. In the finite difference equation in SWMM 5 the pipe shown below would have one length but use the cross sectional information from the upstream, midpoint and downstream points of the link.

The bend in the pipe would be modeled using the "other" category of losses